Oili M.E. Ylivaara

Research Scientist

20102021
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Research Output 2010 2019

2019

Advanced Lateral High Aspect Ratio Test Structures for Conformality Characterization by Optical Microscopy

Ylivaara, O. M. E., Hyttinen, P., Arts, K., Gao, F., Erwin Kessels, W. M. M., Puurunen, R. L. & Utriainen, M., 22 Jul 2019, ALD 2019 Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

high aspect ratio
microscopy
image analysis
atomic layer epitaxy
metrology

Al2O3 Thin Films Prepared by a Combined Thermal-Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition Process at Low Temperature for Encapsulation Applications

Zhu, Z., Merdes, S., Ylivaara, O. M. E., Mizohata, K., Heikkilä, M. J. & Savin, H., 12 Sep 2019, (Accepted/In press) In : Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science. 1900237.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Plasma Gases
Plasma deposition
Atomic layer deposition
thermal plasmas
atomic layer epitaxy

Al2O3 thin films prepared by a modified H2O-based PEALD for encapsulation applications

Zhu, Z., Merdes, S., Mizohata, K., Ylivaara, O. M. E., Heikkilä, M. J. & Salmi, E., 25 Jun 2019.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference PosterScientificpeer-review

Conformality analysis of the archetype aluminium oxide ALD process in 3rd-generation silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio test structures

Ylivaara, O. M. E., Yim, J., Ylilammi, M., Utriainen, M. & Puurunen, R. L., 27 Jun 2019.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference PosterScientificpeer-review

Intercalation of Lithium Ions from Gaseous Precursors into β-MnO 2 Thin Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

Nieminen, H-E., Miikkulainen, V., Settipani, D., Simonelli, L., Hönicke, P., Zech, C., Kayser, Y., Beckhoff, B., Honkanen, A-P., Heikkilä, M. J., Mizohata, K., Meinander, K., Ylivaara, O. M. E., Huotari, S. & Ritala, M., 27 Jun 2019, In : Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 123, 25, p. 15802-15814 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Atomic layer deposition
Intercalation
atomic layer epitaxy
Lithium
intercalation

Low-Temperature Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of SiO2 Using Carbon Dioxide

Zhu, Z., Sippola, P., Ylivaara, O., Modanese, C., Di Sabatino, M., Mizohata, K., Merdes, S., Lipsanen, H. & Savin, H., 2019, In : Nanoscale Research Letters. 14, 8 p., 55.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Open Access
Atomic layer deposition
cold plasmas
atomic layer epitaxy
Carbon Dioxide
carbon dioxide

Microelectrode Array With Transparent ALD TiN Electrodes

Ryynänen, T., Pelkonen, A., Grigoras, K., Ylivaara, O. M. E., Hyvärinen, T., Ahopelto, J., Prunnila, M., Narkilahti, S. & Lekkala, J., 22 Mar 2019, In : Frontiers in Neuroscience. 13, 226.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Open Access
Microelectrodes
Electrodes
Electric Impedance
Noise
Neurons

Stresses in ALD films: aiming for zero stress thin films

Ritasalo, R., Ylivaara, O. M. E., Pilvi, T., Suni, T. & Veselov, A., 14 May 2019.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientificpeer-review

Thin film conformality analysis with microscopic PillarHall lateral high aspect ratio structures: uncertainty estimates

Korpelainen, V., Ylivaara, O. M. E., Gao, F., Utriainen, M., Ylilammi, M. & Puurunen, R. L., 15 Oct 2019.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference PosterScientificpeer-review

2018

(Semi-)transparent ALD TiN microelectrodes

Ryynänen, T., Pelkonen, A., Grigoras, K., Ylivaara, O., Ahopelto, J., Prunnila, M., Narkilahti, S. & Lekkala, J., 27 Jul 2018.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference PosterScientificpeer-review

Open Access
1 Citation (Scopus)

Comparison of mechanical properties and composition of magnetron sputter and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition aluminum nitride films

Sippola, P., Pyymäki Perros, A., Ylivaara, O., Ronkainen, H., Julin, J., Liu, X., Sajavaara, T., Etula, J., Lipsanen, H. & Puurunen, R. L., 30 Jul 2018, In : Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films. 36, 5, 12 p., 051508.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Open Access
Aluminum nitride
Atomic layer deposition
aluminum nitrides
atomic layer epitaxy
mechanical properties
9 Citations (Scopus)

Modeling growth kinetics of thin films made by atomic layer deposition in lateral high-aspect-ratio structures

Ylilammi, M., Ylivaara, O. M. E. & Puurunen, R. L., 28 May 2018, In : Journal of Applied Physics. 123, 20, 205301.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

atomic layer epitaxy
high aspect ratio
kinetics
thin films
adsorption

PillarHall LHAR structure for thin film conformality measurements

Korpelainen, V., Ylivaara, O., Ylilammi, M., Utriainen, M., Gao, F. & Puurunen, R. L., 14 May 2018.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientificpeer-review

PillarHall LHAR structure for Thin Film Conformality Measurements

Utriainen, M., Korpelainen, V., Ylivaara, O., Gao, F., Ylilammi, M. & Puurunen, R. L., 13 May 2018, p. 16.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientificpeer-review

Open Access
Aspect ratio
Thin films
Silicon
Atomic layer deposition
MEMS

Properties of ALD grown Al2O3-TiO2 laminates investigated by high temperature XRD/XRR and in situ wafer curvature measurements

Heikkilä, M. J., Ylivaara, O., Atosuo, E., Puurunen, R. L., Ritala, M. & Leskelä, M., 19 Sep 2018, 2018 E-MRS Fall book of abstracts.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

rutile
laminates
microelectromechanical systems
aluminum oxides
curvature

Stresses in ALD films: Aiming for zero stress thin films

Ritasalo, R., Ylivaara, O., Pilvi, T. & Suni, T., 16 Oct 2018.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientificpeer-review

Stresses in ALD films: Aiming for zero stress thin films

Ritasalo, R., Ylivaara, O., Pilvi, T. & Suni, T., 29 Jul 2018, p. 49.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientificpeer-review

Open Access
atomic layer epitaxy
thin films
residual stress
microelectromechanical systems
metal oxides

Thin-Film Conformality Analysis, Reliability and Modeling using All-Silicon Lateral High Aspect Ratio Structures

Ylivaara, O., Korpelainen, V., Ylilammi, M. & Puurunen, R. L., 29 Jul 2018, p. 51.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientificpeer-review

Open Access
Reliability analysis
Aspect ratio
Thin films
Silicon
Atomic layer deposition
1 Citation (Scopus)

Tribological properties of thin films made by atomic layer deposition sliding against silicon

Kilpi, L., Ylivaara, O. M. E., Vaajoki, A., Liu, X., Rontu, V., Sintonen, S., Haimi, E., Malm, J., Bosund, M., Tuominen, M., Sajavaara, T., Lipsanen, H., Hannula, S. P., Puurunen, R. L. & Ronkainen, H., 1 Jan 2018, In : Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films. 36, 1, 01A122.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Atomic layer deposition
Silicon
atomic layer epitaxy
sliding
coatings
2017
10 Citations (Scopus)

Aluminum oxide/titanium dioxide nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition: Growth and mechanical properties

Ylivaara, O. M. E., Kilpi, L., Liu, X., Sintonen, S., Ali, S., Laitinen, M., Julin, J., Haimi, E., Sajavaara, T., Lipsanen, H., Hannula, S-P., Ronkainen, H. & Puurunen, R. L., 2017, In : Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films. 35, 1, 14 p., 01B105.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Open Access
Atomic layer deposition
Aluminum Oxide
atomic layer epitaxy
titanium oxides
Titanium dioxide
1 Citation (Scopus)

Biocompatible ALD barrier coatings for medical devices

Matvejeff, M., Ek, S., Ritasalo, R., Kalliomäki, J., Järvinen, P., Ylivaara, O. & Östreng, E., 13 Jun 2017, Proceedings of 2017 IEEE Electron Devices Technology and Manufacturing Conference (EDTM). Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE, p. 56-58 3 p. 7947504

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

Atomic layer deposition
Coatings
Metals
Chemical resistance
Medical applications

Bulge testing of freestanding ALD thin film membranes

Ylivaara, O., Törmä, P., Stuns, I., Saarilahti, J. & Puurunen, R., 2017.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientificpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)

Review Article: Recommended reading list of early publications on atomic layer deposition: Outcome of the "Virtual Project on the History of ALD"

Ahvenniemi, E., Akbashev, A., Ali, S., Bechelany, M., Berdova, M., Boyadjiev, S., Cameron, D., Chen, R., Chubarov, M., Cremers, V., Devi, A., Drozd, V., Elnikova, L., Gottardi, G., Grigoras, K., Hausmann, D., Hwang, C. S., Jen, S-H., Kallio, T., Kanervo, J. & 42 others, Khmelnitskiy, I., Kim, D. H., Klibanov, L., Koshtyal, Y., Krause, O., Kuhs, J., Kärkkänen, I., Kääriäinen, M-L., Kääriäinen, T., Lamagna, L., Lapicki, A., Leskelä, M., Lipsanen, H., Lyytinen, J., Malkov, A., Malygin, A., Mennad, A., Militzer, C., Molarius, J., Norek, M., Özgit-Akgün, Ç., Panov, M., Pedersen, H., Piallat, F., Popov, G., Puurunen, R., Rampelberg, G., Ras, R. H. A., Rauwel, E., Roozeboom, F., Sajavaara, T., Salami, H., Savin, H., Schneider, N., Seidel, T. E., Sundqvist, J., Suyatin, D., Törndahl, T., van Ommen, J. R., Wiemer, C., Ylivaara, O. & Yurkevich, O., 1 Jan 2017, In : Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films. 35, 1, 010801.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

Open Access
Atomic layer deposition
atomic layer epitaxy
lists
histories
Atomic layer epitaxy

Silicon-based lateral-gap test structures to mimic macro- and mesoporous catalyst supports

Puurunen, R. L., Ylivaara, O., Grigoras, K. & Ylilammi, M., 2017.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference articleScientificpeer-review

Thin film conformality analysis with microscopic all-silicon lateral high aspect ratio structures

Puurunen, R., Ylivaara, O., Grigoras, K. & Ylilammi, M., 2017.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientificpeer-review

Thin film conformality analysis with microscopic all-silicon lateral high aspect ratio structures

Puurunen, R., Ylivaara, O. & Ylilammi, M., 2017.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientific

Traceability of internal length scale in PillarHall thin film conformality test chips

Korpelainen, V., Gao, F., Laamanen, M., Ylivaara, O. M. E., Sundqvist, J., Utriainen, M. & Puurunen, R. L., 2017.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientific

Open Access

XeF2 etching of silicon using ALD films as etch stop layers

Ylivaara, O., Saarilahti, J. & Puurunen, R., 2017.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientificpeer-review

2016

Effect of precursor chemistry on residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films

Miikkulainen, V., Nieminen, H., Ylivaara, O., Mizohata, K., Puurunen, R. L. & Ritala, M., 2016, Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

residual stress
chemistry
stress measurement
oxygen
buckling

Highly conformal TiN by atomic layer deposition: growth and characterization

Grigoras, K., Ylivaara, O., Gao, F., Heikkilä, M. J., Mizohata, K., Prunnila, M., Räisänen, J., Ritala, M., Leskelä, M., Ahopelto, J. & Puurunen, R., 2016, Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

atomic layer epitaxy
cycles
residual stress
wafers
electrical resistivity

In-situ high temperature x-ray scattering studies of some atomic layer deposited layers of metals and metal oxides

Heikkilä, M. J., Kukli, K., Atosuo, E., Ylivaara, O., Puurunen, R. L., Ritala, M. & Leskelä, M., 2016, Synchrotron Radiation to study Atomic Layer Deposition: SR-ALD Workshop: Book of abstracts.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

Open Access
13 Citations (Scopus)

Microscratch testing method for systematic evaluation of the adhesion of atomic layer deposited thin films on silicon

Kilpi, L., Ylivaara, O. M. E., Vaajoki, A., Malm, J., Sintonen, S., Tuominen, M., Puurunen, R. L. & Ronkainen, H., 2016, In : Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films. 34, 1, 01A124.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Open Access
Silicon
adhesion
Adhesion
coatings
Thin films

On the early history of atomic layer deposition: most significant works and applications

Aarik, J., Ahvenniemi, E., Akbashev, A. R., Ali, S., Bechelany, M., Berdova, M., Cameron, D., Chekurov, N., Chubarov, M., Drozd, V., Elliott, S., Gottardi, G., Grigoras, K., Hwang, C. S., Junige, M., Kallio, T., Kanervo, J., Khmelnitskiy, I., Koshtyal, Y., Krause, O. & 32 others, Kääriäinen, M-L., Kääriäinen, T., Lamagna, L., Lipsanen, H., Lyytinen, J., Malkov, A., Malygin, A., Molarius, J., Norek, M., Ozgit-Akgun, C., Panov, M., Pedersen, H., Piallat, F., Popov, G., Puurunen, R. L., Pyymaki-Perros, A., Ras, R. H. A., Roozeboom, F., Sajavaara, T., Savin, H., Seidel, T. E., Sundberg, P., Sundqvist, J., Suyatin, D., Tallarida, M., Törndahl, T., Utriainen, M., van Ommen, J. R., Wächtler, T., Wiemer, C., Ylivaara, O. M. E. & Yurkevich, O., 2016.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference PosterScientific

Residual stress in SiO2 thin films on silicon

Ylivaara, O., Putkonen, M., Pfeiffer, K., Szeghalmi, A. & Puurunen, R., 2016, Stress Evolution in Thin Films and Coatings Book of Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS, 17

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

residual stress
atomic layer epitaxy
silicon dioxide
oxides
vapor deposition

Residual stress in thin films made by atomic layer deposition

Ylivaara, O. & Puurunen, R., 2016, Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

atomic layer epitaxy
residual stress
thin films
wafers
ozone

Residual stress in thin films made by atomic layer deposition

Ylivaara, O. & Puurunen, R., 2016.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference PosterScientificpeer-review

atomic layer epitaxy
residual stress
thin films
ozone
wafers

Study of processing parameters on the mechanical and compositional properties of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition aluminum nitride films

Pyymaki-Perros, A., Ylivaara, O., Liu, X., Julin, J., Sajavaara, T., Ali, S., Sintonen, S., Lipsanen, H. & Puurunen, R. L., 2016.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientificpeer-review

aluminum nitrides
atomic layer epitaxy
mechanical properties
electric potential
plasma chemistry
11 Citations (Scopus)

Thermal conductivity of amorphous Al2O3/ TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition

Ali, S., Juntunen, T., Sintonen, S., Ylivaara, O., Puurunen, R., Lipsanen, H., Tittonen, I. & Hannula, S-P., 2016, In : Nanotechnology. 27, 445704.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Atomic layer deposition
Thermal conductivity
Amorphous films
Temperature
Thermodynamic properties

Tribological properties of atomic layer deposited thin films against silicon

Kilpi, L., Ylivaara, O., Vaajoki, A., Liu, X., Rontu, V., Sintonen, S., Haimi, E., Bosund, M., Tuominen, M., Sajavaara, T., Lipsanen, H., Hannula, S-P., Puurunen, R. & Helena, R., 2016.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference PosterScientific

2015
6 Citations (Scopus)

Fracture properties of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide free-standing membranes

Berdova, M., Ylivaara, O. M. E., Rontu, V., Törmä, P. T., Puurunen, R. L. & Franssila, S., 2015, In : Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films. 33, 1, 01A106.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Aluminum Oxide
fracture strength
Fracture toughness
aluminum oxides
membranes

Mechanical property mapping of ALD thin films

Puurunen, R. L., Ali, S., Arstila, K., Berdova, M., Haimi, E., Heikkinen, H., Julin, J., Kilpi, L., Laitinen, M., Liu, X., Lyytinen, J., Malm, J., Pyymaki-Perros, A., Rontu, V., Sintonen, S., Ylivaara, O., Sajavaara, T., Lipsanen, H., Franssila, S., Koskinen, J. & 3 others, Ronkainen, H., Hannula, S-P. & Kiihamäki, J., 2015, Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

9 Citations (Scopus)

Nanotribological, nanomechanical and interfacial characterization of Atomic Layer Deposited TiO2 on a silicon substrate

Lyytinen, J., Liu, X., Ylivaara, O. M. E., Sintonen, S., Iyer, A., Ali, S., Julin, J., Lipsanen, H., Sajavaara, T., Puurunen, R. L. & Koskinen, J., 2015, In : Wear. 342-343, p. 270-278 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Silicon
silicon
Substrates
Wear of materials
coatings

Thin film stress measurement and error determination: ALD Al2O3 films with different wafer sizes

Heikkinen, H., Ylivaara, O., Grönberg, L. & Puurunen, R. L., 2015, Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

2014
82 Citations (Scopus)

Aluminum oxide from trimethylaluminum and water by atomic layer deposition: The temperature dependence of residual stress, elastic modulus, hardness and adhesion

Ylivaara, O. M. E., Liu, X., Kilpi, L., Lyytinen, J., Schneider, D., Laitinen, M., Julin, J., Ali, S., Sintonen, S., Berdova, M., Haimi, E., Sajavaara, T., Ronkainen, H., Lipsanen, H., Koskinen, J., Hannula, S. P. & Puurunen, R. L., 2014, In : Thin Solid Films. 552, p. 124-135 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Open Access
Atomic layer deposition
Aluminum Oxide
atomic layer epitaxy
residual stress
Residual stresses

Characterization of ALD materials for optical applications in the ultraviolet range

Langner, A., Färm, E., Ylivaara, O., Ritala, M., Leskelä, M. & Puurunen, R. L., 2014, BALD2014 Abstract book.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

Influence of post-ALD annealing and thermal cycling to the residual stress, elastic modulus and hardness of ALD Al2O3

Ylivaara, O., Liu, X., Sintonen, S., Ali, S., Julin, J., Langner, A., Haimi, E., Sajavaara, T., Lipsanen, H., Hannula, S-P. & Puurunen, R. L., 2014, Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

Mechanical properties of ALD TiN films made from TiCl4 and NH3

Puurunen, R. L., Ylivaara, O., Liu, X., Julin, J., Sintonen, S., Marchand, B., Jalkanen, P., Haimi, E., Tuominen, M., Räisänen, J., Sajavaara, T., Lipsanen, H. & Hannula, S-P., 2014, BALD2014 Abstract book.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

On the early history of ALD: molecular layering

Aarik, J., Akbashev, A., Bechelany, M., Berdova, M., Cameron, D., Chekurov, N., Drozd, V., Elliott, S., Gottardi, G., Grigoras, K., Junige, M., Kallio, T., Kanervo, J., Koshtyal, Y., Kääriäinen, M-L., Kääriäinen, T., Lamagna, L., Malkov, A., Malygin, A., Molarius, J. & 16 others, Ozgit-Akgun, C., Pedersen, H., Puurunen, R. L., Pyymaki-Perros, A., Ras, R. H. A., Roozeboom, F., Sajavaara, T., Savin, H., Seidel, T. E., Sundberg, P., Sundqvist, J., Tallarida, M., van Ommen, J. R., Wächtler, T., Wiemer, C. & Ylivaara, O., 2014, Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

4 Citations (Scopus)

On the reliability of nanoindentation hardness of Al2O3 films grown on Si-wafer by atomic layer deposition

Liu, X., Haimi, E., Hannula, S. P., Ylivaara, O. M. E. & Puurunen, R. L., 2014, In : Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films. 32, 1, 01A116.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Atomic layer deposition
Nanoindentation
atomic layer epitaxy
nanoindentation
Film thickness

Overview of early publications on atomic layer deposition

Aarik, J., Akbashev, A. R., Bechelany, M., Berdova, M., Cameron, D., Chekurov, N., Drozd, V., Elliott, S., Gottardi, G., Grigoras, K., Junige, M., Kallio, T., Kanervo, J., Koshtyal, Y., Kääriäinen, M-L., Kääriäinen, T., Lamagna, L., Malkov, A., Malygin, A., Molarius, J. & 16 others, Ozgit-Akgun, C., Pedersen, H., Puurunen, R. L., Pyymaki-Perros, A., Ras, R. H. A., Roozeboom, F., Sajavaara, T., Savin, H., Seidel, T. E., Sundberg, P., Sundqvist, J., Tallarida, M., van Ommen, J. R., Wächtler, T., Wiemer, C. & Ylivaara, O., 2014, Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific