Intensification of the industrial brewing process, particularly the use of higher gravity worts, has been driven by increasing competition within the industry as well as the need to maximise the use of raw materials and minimise energy expenditure. These developments have, however, placed greater demands on brewing yeast strains, whose evolutionary history has not prepared them for the extreme conditions associated with higher gravity brewing. Various yeast nutrient supplements have been used or proposed to maintain yeast performance under stressful conditions. These have included specific metal ions, lipids and lipid components such as fatty acids and sterols and free amino nitrogen, usually supplied in the form of a complex yeast food. Correction of wort nutritional deficiencies may reduce stress sensitivity of yeast and improve fermentation performance. Potential negative consequences of altering wort composition must however be considered, as important beer quality attributes such as taste, stability and foam can be affected. Here, the various options for nutrient supplementation and their influence on yeast physiology and performance, as well as beer characteristics are considered.
|Journal||Journal of the Institute of Brewing|
|Publication status||Published - 2011|
|MoE publication type||A2 Review article in a scientific journal|
- high gravity