14 MeV calibration of JET neutron detectors-phase 1: Calibration and characterization of the neutron source

P Batistoni (Corresponding Author), S. Popovichev, A. Cufar, Z. Ghani, L. Giacomelli, S. Jednorog, A. Klix, S. Lilley, E. Laszynska, S. Loreti, L. Packer, A. Peacock, M. Pillon, R. Price, M. Rebai, D. Rigamonti, N. Roberts, M. Tardocchi, D. Thomas, L. Aho-Mantila & 13 others M. Airila, Antti Hakola, Haesik Kim, Seppo Koivuranta, Aapeli Lahtinen, Jari Likonen, Yingying Liu, Tapani Makkonen, Henrik Nordman, Antti Salmi, Paula Siren, Tuomas Tala, JET Contributors

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    • 4 Citations

    Abstract

    In view of the planned DT operations at JET, a calibration of the JET neutron monitors at 14 MeV neutron energy is needed using a 14 MeV neutron generator deployed inside the vacuum vessel by the JET remote handling system. The target accuracy of this calibration is 10% as also required by ITER, where a precise neutron yield measurement is important, e.g. for tritium accountancy. To achieve this accuracy, the 14 MeV neutron generator selected as the calibration source has been fully characterised and calibrated prior to the in-vessel calibration of the JET monitors. This paper describes the measurements performed using different types of neutron detectors, spectrometers, calibrated long counters and activation foils which allowed us to obtain the neutron emission rate and the anisotropy of the neutron generator, i.e.The neutron flux and energy spectrum dependence on emission angle, and to derive the absolute emission rate in 4π sr. The use of high resolution diamond spectrometers made it possible to resolve the complex features of the neutron energy spectra resulting from the mixed D/T beam ions reacting with the D/T nuclei present in the neutron generator target. As the neutron generator is not a stable neutron source, several monitoring detectors were attached to it by means of an ad hoc mechanical structure to continuously monitor the neutron emission rate during the in-vessel calibration. These monitoring detectors, two diamond diodes and activation foils, have been calibrated in terms of neutrons/counts within ± 5% total uncertainty. A neutron source routine has been developed, able to produce the neutron spectra resulting from all possible reactions occurring with the D/T ions in the beam impinging on the Ti D/T target. The neutron energy spectra calculated by combining the source routine with a MCNP model of the neutron generator have been validated by the measurements. These numerical tools will be key in analysing the results from the in-vessel calibration and to derive the response of the JET neutron detectors to DT plasma neutrons starting from the response to the generator neutrons, and taking into account all the calibration circumstances.

    LanguageEnglish
    Article number026012
    Number of pages24
    JournalNuclear Fusion
    Volume58
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible

    Fingerprint

    neutron counters
    neutron sources
    neutrons
    generators
    vessels
    neutron spectra
    energy spectra
    neutron emission
    monitors
    foils
    remote handling
    diamonds
    activation
    spectrometers
    detectors
    tritium
    flux (rate)
    counters
    ion beams
    diodes

    Keywords

    • Fusion reactor
    • Neutron calibration
    • Neutron generator

    OKM Publication Types

    • A1 Refereed journal article

    OKM Open Access Status

    • 0 Not Open Access

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
    • Condensed Matter Physics

    Cite this

    Batistoni, P., Popovichev, S., Cufar, A., Ghani, Z., Giacomelli, L., Jednorog, S., ... JET Contributors (2018). 14 MeV calibration of JET neutron detectors-phase 1: Calibration and characterization of the neutron source. Nuclear Fusion, 58(2), [026012]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa98f6
    Batistoni, P ; Popovichev, S. ; Cufar, A. ; Ghani, Z. ; Giacomelli, L. ; Jednorog, S. ; Klix, A. ; Lilley, S. ; Laszynska, E. ; Loreti, S. ; Packer, L. ; Peacock, A. ; Pillon, M. ; Price, R. ; Rebai, M. ; Rigamonti, D. ; Roberts, N. ; Tardocchi, M. ; Thomas, D. ; Aho-Mantila, L. ; Airila, M. ; Hakola, Antti ; Kim, Haesik ; Koivuranta, Seppo ; Lahtinen, Aapeli ; Likonen, Jari ; Liu, Yingying ; Makkonen, Tapani ; Nordman, Henrik ; Salmi, Antti ; Siren, Paula ; Tala, Tuomas ; JET Contributors. / 14 MeV calibration of JET neutron detectors-phase 1 : Calibration and characterization of the neutron source. In: Nuclear Fusion. 2018 ; Vol. 58, No. 2.
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    abstract = "In view of the planned DT operations at JET, a calibration of the JET neutron monitors at 14 MeV neutron energy is needed using a 14 MeV neutron generator deployed inside the vacuum vessel by the JET remote handling system. The target accuracy of this calibration is 10{\%} as also required by ITER, where a precise neutron yield measurement is important, e.g. for tritium accountancy. To achieve this accuracy, the 14 MeV neutron generator selected as the calibration source has been fully characterised and calibrated prior to the in-vessel calibration of the JET monitors. This paper describes the measurements performed using different types of neutron detectors, spectrometers, calibrated long counters and activation foils which allowed us to obtain the neutron emission rate and the anisotropy of the neutron generator, i.e.The neutron flux and energy spectrum dependence on emission angle, and to derive the absolute emission rate in 4π sr. The use of high resolution diamond spectrometers made it possible to resolve the complex features of the neutron energy spectra resulting from the mixed D/T beam ions reacting with the D/T nuclei present in the neutron generator target. As the neutron generator is not a stable neutron source, several monitoring detectors were attached to it by means of an ad hoc mechanical structure to continuously monitor the neutron emission rate during the in-vessel calibration. These monitoring detectors, two diamond diodes and activation foils, have been calibrated in terms of neutrons/counts within ± 5{\%} total uncertainty. A neutron source routine has been developed, able to produce the neutron spectra resulting from all possible reactions occurring with the D/T ions in the beam impinging on the Ti D/T target. The neutron energy spectra calculated by combining the source routine with a MCNP model of the neutron generator have been validated by the measurements. These numerical tools will be key in analysing the results from the in-vessel calibration and to derive the response of the JET neutron detectors to DT plasma neutrons starting from the response to the generator neutrons, and taking into account all the calibration circumstances.",
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    author = "P Batistoni and S. Popovichev and A. Cufar and Z. Ghani and L. Giacomelli and S. Jednorog and A. Klix and S. Lilley and E. Laszynska and S. Loreti and L. Packer and A. Peacock and M. Pillon and R. Price and M. Rebai and D. Rigamonti and N. Roberts and M. Tardocchi and D. Thomas and L. Aho-Mantila and M. Airila and Antti Hakola and Haesik Kim and Seppo Koivuranta and Aapeli Lahtinen and Jari Likonen and Yingying Liu and Tapani Makkonen and Henrik Nordman and Antti Salmi and Paula Siren and Tuomas Tala and {JET Contributors}",
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    Batistoni, P, Popovichev, S, Cufar, A, Ghani, Z, Giacomelli, L, Jednorog, S, Klix, A, Lilley, S, Laszynska, E, Loreti, S, Packer, L, Peacock, A, Pillon, M, Price, R, Rebai, M, Rigamonti, D, Roberts, N, Tardocchi, M, Thomas, D, Aho-Mantila, L, Airila, M, Hakola, A, Kim, H, Koivuranta, S, Lahtinen, A, Likonen, J, Liu, Y, Makkonen, T, Nordman, H, Salmi, A, Siren, P, Tala, T & JET Contributors 2018, '14 MeV calibration of JET neutron detectors-phase 1: Calibration and characterization of the neutron source' Nuclear Fusion, vol. 58, no. 2, 026012. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa98f6

    14 MeV calibration of JET neutron detectors-phase 1 : Calibration and characterization of the neutron source. / Batistoni, P (Corresponding Author); Popovichev, S.; Cufar, A.; Ghani, Z.; Giacomelli, L.; Jednorog, S.; Klix, A.; Lilley, S.; Laszynska, E.; Loreti, S.; Packer, L.; Peacock, A.; Pillon, M.; Price, R.; Rebai, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Roberts, N.; Tardocchi, M.; Thomas, D.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Airila, M.; Hakola, Antti; Kim, Haesik; Koivuranta, Seppo; Lahtinen, Aapeli; Likonen, Jari; Liu, Yingying; Makkonen, Tapani; Nordman, Henrik; Salmi, Antti; Siren, Paula; Tala, Tuomas; JET Contributors.

    In: Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 58, No. 2, 026012, 01.02.2018.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - 14 MeV calibration of JET neutron detectors-phase 1

    T2 - Nuclear Fusion

    AU - Batistoni, P

    AU - Popovichev, S.

    AU - Cufar, A.

    AU - Ghani, Z.

    AU - Giacomelli, L.

    AU - Jednorog, S.

    AU - Klix, A.

    AU - Lilley, S.

    AU - Laszynska, E.

    AU - Loreti, S.

    AU - Packer, L.

    AU - Peacock, A.

    AU - Pillon, M.

    AU - Price, R.

    AU - Rebai, M.

    AU - Rigamonti, D.

    AU - Roberts, N.

    AU - Tardocchi, M.

    AU - Thomas, D.

    AU - Aho-Mantila, L.

    AU - Airila, M.

    AU - Hakola, Antti

    AU - Kim, Haesik

    AU - Koivuranta, Seppo

    AU - Lahtinen, Aapeli

    AU - Likonen, Jari

    AU - Liu, Yingying

    AU - Makkonen, Tapani

    AU - Nordman, Henrik

    AU - Salmi, Antti

    AU - Siren, Paula

    AU - Tala, Tuomas

    AU - JET Contributors,

    PY - 2018/2/1

    Y1 - 2018/2/1

    N2 - In view of the planned DT operations at JET, a calibration of the JET neutron monitors at 14 MeV neutron energy is needed using a 14 MeV neutron generator deployed inside the vacuum vessel by the JET remote handling system. The target accuracy of this calibration is 10% as also required by ITER, where a precise neutron yield measurement is important, e.g. for tritium accountancy. To achieve this accuracy, the 14 MeV neutron generator selected as the calibration source has been fully characterised and calibrated prior to the in-vessel calibration of the JET monitors. This paper describes the measurements performed using different types of neutron detectors, spectrometers, calibrated long counters and activation foils which allowed us to obtain the neutron emission rate and the anisotropy of the neutron generator, i.e.The neutron flux and energy spectrum dependence on emission angle, and to derive the absolute emission rate in 4π sr. The use of high resolution diamond spectrometers made it possible to resolve the complex features of the neutron energy spectra resulting from the mixed D/T beam ions reacting with the D/T nuclei present in the neutron generator target. As the neutron generator is not a stable neutron source, several monitoring detectors were attached to it by means of an ad hoc mechanical structure to continuously monitor the neutron emission rate during the in-vessel calibration. These monitoring detectors, two diamond diodes and activation foils, have been calibrated in terms of neutrons/counts within ± 5% total uncertainty. A neutron source routine has been developed, able to produce the neutron spectra resulting from all possible reactions occurring with the D/T ions in the beam impinging on the Ti D/T target. The neutron energy spectra calculated by combining the source routine with a MCNP model of the neutron generator have been validated by the measurements. These numerical tools will be key in analysing the results from the in-vessel calibration and to derive the response of the JET neutron detectors to DT plasma neutrons starting from the response to the generator neutrons, and taking into account all the calibration circumstances.

    AB - In view of the planned DT operations at JET, a calibration of the JET neutron monitors at 14 MeV neutron energy is needed using a 14 MeV neutron generator deployed inside the vacuum vessel by the JET remote handling system. The target accuracy of this calibration is 10% as also required by ITER, where a precise neutron yield measurement is important, e.g. for tritium accountancy. To achieve this accuracy, the 14 MeV neutron generator selected as the calibration source has been fully characterised and calibrated prior to the in-vessel calibration of the JET monitors. This paper describes the measurements performed using different types of neutron detectors, spectrometers, calibrated long counters and activation foils which allowed us to obtain the neutron emission rate and the anisotropy of the neutron generator, i.e.The neutron flux and energy spectrum dependence on emission angle, and to derive the absolute emission rate in 4π sr. The use of high resolution diamond spectrometers made it possible to resolve the complex features of the neutron energy spectra resulting from the mixed D/T beam ions reacting with the D/T nuclei present in the neutron generator target. As the neutron generator is not a stable neutron source, several monitoring detectors were attached to it by means of an ad hoc mechanical structure to continuously monitor the neutron emission rate during the in-vessel calibration. These monitoring detectors, two diamond diodes and activation foils, have been calibrated in terms of neutrons/counts within ± 5% total uncertainty. A neutron source routine has been developed, able to produce the neutron spectra resulting from all possible reactions occurring with the D/T ions in the beam impinging on the Ti D/T target. The neutron energy spectra calculated by combining the source routine with a MCNP model of the neutron generator have been validated by the measurements. These numerical tools will be key in analysing the results from the in-vessel calibration and to derive the response of the JET neutron detectors to DT plasma neutrons starting from the response to the generator neutrons, and taking into account all the calibration circumstances.

    KW - Fusion reactor

    KW - Neutron calibration

    KW - Neutron generator

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85040677727&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1088/1741-4326/aa98f6

    DO - 10.1088/1741-4326/aa98f6

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    JO - Nuclear Fusion

    JF - Nuclear Fusion

    SN - 0029-5515

    IS - 2

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