16-term error model in reciprocal systems

K. Silvonen, K. Dahlberg, Tero Kiuru

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)


    By taking reciprocity of the error network into account, full and accurate calibration of a 16-term error model can be performed using only four two-port calibration standards or termination pairs. Moreover, there is no need for a nonsymmetrical calibration standard that is strictly required in a more conventional five-standard calibration. Commercially available standard substrates can thus be used. Detailed theory of the reciprocal 16-term error model and a new calibration method are presented. Reciprocity assumption is valid in on-wafer and other measurements when two-tier calibration is applied. However, the calibration scheme allows measurement of nonreciprocal devices too. The usefulness of the new method is confirmed by practical wideband on-wafer measurements.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3551-3558
    Number of pages7
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
    Issue number11
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • 16-term error model
    • calibration
    • network analyzer (NWA)
    • on-wafer measurement
    • RF device modeling
    • scattering parameter measurement


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