220-240-GHz High-Gain Phase Shifter Chain and Power Amplifier for Scalable Large Phased-Arrays

Md Najmussadat (Corresponding Author), Raju Ahamed, Mikko Varonen, Dristy Parveg, Mikko Kantanen, Kari A.I. Halonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


This paper focuses on the design aspects of the key components for a scalable phased-array system over the 200 GHz frequency range. A high-gain phase shifter chain for 220 to 240 GHz frequency range and a high-gain power amplifier (PA) with a high output power are designed in a 0.13-$\mu\text{m}$ SiGe BiCMOS technology. The phase shifter chain includes a low-noise amplifier (LNA), a vector modulator phase shifter (PS), and a gain-enhancing amplifier. The LNA is a five-stage cascode design. The vector modulator core is realized by two variable gain amplifiers based on the Gilbert cell architecture. A four-stage cascode design is used for the gain-enhancing amplifier. The phase shifter chain shows a measured gain of 18 dB at 230 GHz with a $360 {\mathrm { ^{\circ}}}$ phase tuning range and more than 10 dB of gain control. The chip achieves a minimum measured noise figure of 11.5 dB at 230 GHz and shows a wideband noise characteristic. The complete phase shifter chain chip consumes a dc power of 153 mW and occupies a 1.41 mm2 area. A high-power PA that is critical for a large phased-array system is designed. This paper presents a unique 4-way power combining technique utilizing a differential quadrature coupler. The realized balanced PA occupies an area of 0.67 mm2 and shows a measured peak gain of 21 dB at 244 GHz. The PA consumes 819 mW of dc power and delivers a maximum saturated output power (P sat) of 7.1 dBm at 244 GHz and more than 4.3 dBm of P sat from 230 to 255 GHz.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23565-23577
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 6 Mar 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Differential coupler
  • Gain
  • gain tuning
  • low-noise amplifier
  • millimeter-wave
  • MMIC
  • Noise figure
  • phase shifter
  • Phase shifters
  • phased-array
  • power amplifier
  • Power amplifiers
  • Radio frequency
  • receiver
  • Receivers
  • transmitter
  • Transmitters


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