We measured the spatial properties of the three-dimensional (3D) double-directional radio channel in urban macrocell environments separately at both ends of the link. In this paper, we study propagation conditions pertaining to reception and transmission at the mobile terminal, measured using a wideband channel sounder and a dual-polarized spherical antenna array. We were able to refine the results of the measurements conducted at the base station, and extend the study to full double-directional 3D channels. Individual propagation paths could be identified precisely, in some cases even considerable scattering from lampposts was observed. Our results show that over-rooftop-dominated propagation often occurs via building roofs with LOS to the base station antenna, acting as strong secondary signal sources. Based on measurements along continuous routes we demonstrate that the dominant propagation mechanisms can vary considerably when the mobile moves in the environment. We also present typical directional properties of the 3D radio channel at the mobile terminal in urban macrocell environments characterized by street canyons, showing how the angular distribution of energy is correlated with the excess delay.
Kalliola, K., Laitinen, H., Vainikainen, P., Toeltsch, M., Laurila, J., & Bonek, E. (2003). 3-D double-directional radio channel characterization for urban macrocellular applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 51(11), 3122-3133. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2003.816393