3D Printed Lenses for Vertical Beam Collimation of Optical Phased Arrays

Sidra Muntaha (Corresponding Author), Ari Hokkanen, Mikko Harjanne, Matteo Cherchi, Pekka Suopajärvi, Petri Karvinen, Markku Pekkarinen, Matthieu Roussey, Timo Aalto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


This article presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of edge-coupled 1D optical phased arrays (OPAs) combined with collimating lenses. Our concept was tested with two OPAs having different collimation ranges. Both OPA designs have 3-μm waveguide spacing and the maximum beam steering range is about 30° based on wavelength tuning around 1550 nm. The first generation had 37 channels with 108 μm of waveguide array width and the second generation had 512 channels with 1.5 mm array width. As the array outputs are edge coupled, suitable lenses are required to collimate the beam vertically. We report the comparison between a commercially available straight cylindrical lens and custom 3D printed curved cylindrical lenses. In the experiments, we demonstrate 1D beam steering of the light outcoupled from the waveguide facets and collimated by these lenses and analyzed parameters such as Rayleigh range and beam divergence. These parameters are estimated to be 9.9 mm and 7.0 mrad (0.4°), respectively, for the commercial lens, whereas 40.1 mm and 3.5 mrad (0.2°) for the dedicated 3D printed lens, showing a clear improvement.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
Journal3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4 Apr 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • optical phased array
  • 3D printed lens
  • LiDAR
  • collimation
  • silicon photonics


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