3D Printing High-Consistency Enzymatic Nanocellulose Obtained from a Soda-Ethanol-O2 Pine Sawdust Pulp

Heli Kangas (Corresponding Author), Fernando E. Felissia, Daniel Filgueira, Nanci V. Ehman, Maria E. Vallejos, Camila M. Imlauer, Panu Lahtinen, Maria C. Area (Corresponding Author), Gary Chinga-Carrasco (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Soda-ethanol pulps, prepared from a forestry residue pine sawdust, were treated accordingto high-consistency enzymatic fibrillation technology to manufacture nanocellulose. The obtained nanocellulose was characterized and used as ink for three-dimensional (3D) printing of various structures. It was also tested for its moisture sorption capacity and cytotoxicity, as preliminary tests for evaluating its suitability for wound dressing and similar applications. During the high consistency enzymatic treatment it was found that only the treatment of the O2-delignified pine pulp resulted in fibrillation into nano-scale. For 3D printing trials, the material needed to be fluidized further. By 3D printing, it was possible to fabricate various structures from the high-consistency enzymatic nanocellulose. However, the water sorption capacity of the structures was lower than previously seen with porous nanocellulose structures, indicating that further optimization of the material is needed. The material was found not to be cytotoxic, thus showing potential as material, e.g., for wound dressings and for printing tissue models.
Original languageEnglish
Article number60
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jul 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



  • pine sawdust
  • soda ethanol pulping
  • nanocellulose
  • 3D printing
  • cytotoxicity

Cite this

Kangas, H., Felissia, F. E., Filgueira, D., Ehman, N. V., Vallejos, M. E., Imlauer, C. M., Lahtinen, P., Area, M. C., & Chinga-Carrasco, G. (2019). 3D Printing High-Consistency Enzymatic Nanocellulose Obtained from a Soda-Ethanol-O2 Pine Sawdust Pulp. Bioengineering, 6, [60]. https://doi.org/doi:10.3390/bioengineering6030060