A 3D micromechanical compass

Jukka Kyynäräinen (Corresponding Author), Jaakko Saarilahti, Hannu Kattelus, Anu Kärkkäinen, Tor Meinander, Aarne Oja, Panu Pekko, Heikki Seppä, Mika Suhonen, Heikki Kuisma, Sami Ruotsalainen, Markku Tilli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have designed and fabricated micromechanical magnetometers intended for a 3D electronic compass which could be embedded in portable devices. The sensors are based on the Lorentz force acting on a current-carrying coil, processed on a single crystal silicon resonator, and they are operated in vacuum to reach high enough Q values. Sensors for all cartesian components of the magnetic field vector can be processed on the same chip. The vibration amplitude is detected capacitively and the resonance is tracked by a phase-locked-loop circuit. The fabrication process is based on aligned direct bonding of a double side polished silicon wafer and a SOI wafer. Magnetometers measuring the field component along the chip surface have a flux density resolution of about 10 nT/√Hz at a coil current of 100 μA. Magnetometers measuring the field component perpendicular to the chip surface are currently less sensitive with a flux density resolution of about 70 nT/√Hz. The standard deviation of the signal was less than 1% over a period of a few days.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)561-568
Number of pages8
JournalSensors and Actuators A: Physical
Volume142
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Magnetometers
magnetometers
chips
coils
flux density
wafers
Fluxes
Lorentz force
sensors
Sensors
SOI (semiconductors)
silicon
Silicon
Phase locked loops
Silicon wafers
Vibrations (mechanical)
Resonators
standard deviation
resonators
Single crystals

Keywords

  • Magnetometers
  • MEMS
  • Micromechanics
  • Resonant sensors

Cite this

Kyynäräinen, Jukka ; Saarilahti, Jaakko ; Kattelus, Hannu ; Kärkkäinen, Anu ; Meinander, Tor ; Oja, Aarne ; Pekko, Panu ; Seppä, Heikki ; Suhonen, Mika ; Kuisma, Heikki ; Ruotsalainen, Sami ; Tilli, Markku. / A 3D micromechanical compass. In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2008 ; Vol. 142, No. 2. pp. 561-568.
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A 3D micromechanical compass. / Kyynäräinen, Jukka (Corresponding Author); Saarilahti, Jaakko; Kattelus, Hannu; Kärkkäinen, Anu; Meinander, Tor; Oja, Aarne; Pekko, Panu; Seppä, Heikki; Suhonen, Mika; Kuisma, Heikki; Ruotsalainen, Sami; Tilli, Markku.

In: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 142, No. 2, 10.04.2008, p. 561-568.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Kyynäräinen, Jukka

AU - Saarilahti, Jaakko

AU - Kattelus, Hannu

AU - Kärkkäinen, Anu

AU - Meinander, Tor

AU - Oja, Aarne

AU - Pekko, Panu

AU - Seppä, Heikki

AU - Suhonen, Mika

AU - Kuisma, Heikki

AU - Ruotsalainen, Sami

AU - Tilli, Markku

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N2 - We have designed and fabricated micromechanical magnetometers intended for a 3D electronic compass which could be embedded in portable devices. The sensors are based on the Lorentz force acting on a current-carrying coil, processed on a single crystal silicon resonator, and they are operated in vacuum to reach high enough Q values. Sensors for all cartesian components of the magnetic field vector can be processed on the same chip. The vibration amplitude is detected capacitively and the resonance is tracked by a phase-locked-loop circuit. The fabrication process is based on aligned direct bonding of a double side polished silicon wafer and a SOI wafer. Magnetometers measuring the field component along the chip surface have a flux density resolution of about 10 nT/√Hz at a coil current of 100 μA. Magnetometers measuring the field component perpendicular to the chip surface are currently less sensitive with a flux density resolution of about 70 nT/√Hz. The standard deviation of the signal was less than 1% over a period of a few days.

AB - We have designed and fabricated micromechanical magnetometers intended for a 3D electronic compass which could be embedded in portable devices. The sensors are based on the Lorentz force acting on a current-carrying coil, processed on a single crystal silicon resonator, and they are operated in vacuum to reach high enough Q values. Sensors for all cartesian components of the magnetic field vector can be processed on the same chip. The vibration amplitude is detected capacitively and the resonance is tracked by a phase-locked-loop circuit. The fabrication process is based on aligned direct bonding of a double side polished silicon wafer and a SOI wafer. Magnetometers measuring the field component along the chip surface have a flux density resolution of about 10 nT/√Hz at a coil current of 100 μA. Magnetometers measuring the field component perpendicular to the chip surface are currently less sensitive with a flux density resolution of about 70 nT/√Hz. The standard deviation of the signal was less than 1% over a period of a few days.

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