A Carbon footprint of an office building

Miimu Airaksinen (Corresponding Author), P. Matilainen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    27 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Current office buildings are becoming more and more energy efficient. In particular the importance of heating is decreasing, but the share of electricity use is increasing. When the CO2 equivalent emissions are considered, the CO2 emissions from embodied energy make up an important share of the total, indicating that the building materials have a high importance which is often ignored when only the energy efficiency of running the building is considered. This paper studies a new office building in design phase and offers different alternatives to influence building energy consumption, CO2 equivalent emissions from embodied energy from building materials and CO2 equivalent emissions from energy use and how their relationships should be treated. In addition this paper studies how we should weight the primary energy use and the CO2 equivalent emissions of different design options. The results showed that the reduction of energy use reduces both the primary energy use and CO2 equivalent emissions. Especially the reduction of electricity use has a high importance for both primary energy use and CO2 emissions when fossil fuels are used. The lowest CO2 equivalent emissions were achieved when bio-based, renewable energies or nuclear power was used to supply energy for the office building. Evidently then the share of CO2 equivalent emissions from the embodied energy of building materials and products became the dominant source of CO2 equivalent emissions. The lowest primary energy was achieved when bio-based local heating or renewable energies, in addition to district cooling, were used. The highest primary energy was for the nuclear power option.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1197-1210
    Number of pages14
    JournalEnergies
    Volume4
    Issue number8
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Carbon footprint
    Office buildings
    Carbon
    Nuclear energy
    Electricity
    Energy
    Heating
    Fossil fuels
    Energy efficiency
    Energy utilization
    Cooling
    Renewable Energy
    Lowest
    Energy Efficiency
    Energy Efficient
    Energy Consumption

    Keywords

    • CO2 emissions from energy use and materials
    • Energy efficiency
    • Primary energy

    Cite this

    Airaksinen, M., & Matilainen, P. (2011). A Carbon footprint of an office building. Energies, 4(8), 1197-1210. https://doi.org/10.3390/en4081197
    Airaksinen, Miimu ; Matilainen, P. / A Carbon footprint of an office building. In: Energies. 2011 ; Vol. 4, No. 8. pp. 1197-1210.
    @article{356cc68757634a34b01ac21799cbb072,
    title = "A Carbon footprint of an office building",
    abstract = "Current office buildings are becoming more and more energy efficient. In particular the importance of heating is decreasing, but the share of electricity use is increasing. When the CO2 equivalent emissions are considered, the CO2 emissions from embodied energy make up an important share of the total, indicating that the building materials have a high importance which is often ignored when only the energy efficiency of running the building is considered. This paper studies a new office building in design phase and offers different alternatives to influence building energy consumption, CO2 equivalent emissions from embodied energy from building materials and CO2 equivalent emissions from energy use and how their relationships should be treated. In addition this paper studies how we should weight the primary energy use and the CO2 equivalent emissions of different design options. The results showed that the reduction of energy use reduces both the primary energy use and CO2 equivalent emissions. Especially the reduction of electricity use has a high importance for both primary energy use and CO2 emissions when fossil fuels are used. The lowest CO2 equivalent emissions were achieved when bio-based, renewable energies or nuclear power was used to supply energy for the office building. Evidently then the share of CO2 equivalent emissions from the embodied energy of building materials and products became the dominant source of CO2 equivalent emissions. The lowest primary energy was achieved when bio-based local heating or renewable energies, in addition to district cooling, were used. The highest primary energy was for the nuclear power option.",
    keywords = "CO2 emissions from energy use and materials, Energy efficiency, Primary energy",
    author = "Miimu Airaksinen and P. Matilainen",
    year = "2011",
    doi = "10.3390/en4081197",
    language = "English",
    volume = "4",
    pages = "1197--1210",
    journal = "Energies",
    issn = "1996-1073",
    publisher = "MDPI",
    number = "8",

    }

    Airaksinen, M & Matilainen, P 2011, 'A Carbon footprint of an office building', Energies, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1197-1210. https://doi.org/10.3390/en4081197

    A Carbon footprint of an office building. / Airaksinen, Miimu (Corresponding Author); Matilainen, P.

    In: Energies, Vol. 4, No. 8, 2011, p. 1197-1210.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A Carbon footprint of an office building

    AU - Airaksinen, Miimu

    AU - Matilainen, P.

    PY - 2011

    Y1 - 2011

    N2 - Current office buildings are becoming more and more energy efficient. In particular the importance of heating is decreasing, but the share of electricity use is increasing. When the CO2 equivalent emissions are considered, the CO2 emissions from embodied energy make up an important share of the total, indicating that the building materials have a high importance which is often ignored when only the energy efficiency of running the building is considered. This paper studies a new office building in design phase and offers different alternatives to influence building energy consumption, CO2 equivalent emissions from embodied energy from building materials and CO2 equivalent emissions from energy use and how their relationships should be treated. In addition this paper studies how we should weight the primary energy use and the CO2 equivalent emissions of different design options. The results showed that the reduction of energy use reduces both the primary energy use and CO2 equivalent emissions. Especially the reduction of electricity use has a high importance for both primary energy use and CO2 emissions when fossil fuels are used. The lowest CO2 equivalent emissions were achieved when bio-based, renewable energies or nuclear power was used to supply energy for the office building. Evidently then the share of CO2 equivalent emissions from the embodied energy of building materials and products became the dominant source of CO2 equivalent emissions. The lowest primary energy was achieved when bio-based local heating or renewable energies, in addition to district cooling, were used. The highest primary energy was for the nuclear power option.

    AB - Current office buildings are becoming more and more energy efficient. In particular the importance of heating is decreasing, but the share of electricity use is increasing. When the CO2 equivalent emissions are considered, the CO2 emissions from embodied energy make up an important share of the total, indicating that the building materials have a high importance which is often ignored when only the energy efficiency of running the building is considered. This paper studies a new office building in design phase and offers different alternatives to influence building energy consumption, CO2 equivalent emissions from embodied energy from building materials and CO2 equivalent emissions from energy use and how their relationships should be treated. In addition this paper studies how we should weight the primary energy use and the CO2 equivalent emissions of different design options. The results showed that the reduction of energy use reduces both the primary energy use and CO2 equivalent emissions. Especially the reduction of electricity use has a high importance for both primary energy use and CO2 emissions when fossil fuels are used. The lowest CO2 equivalent emissions were achieved when bio-based, renewable energies or nuclear power was used to supply energy for the office building. Evidently then the share of CO2 equivalent emissions from the embodied energy of building materials and products became the dominant source of CO2 equivalent emissions. The lowest primary energy was achieved when bio-based local heating or renewable energies, in addition to district cooling, were used. The highest primary energy was for the nuclear power option.

    KW - CO2 emissions from energy use and materials

    KW - Energy efficiency

    KW - Primary energy

    U2 - 10.3390/en4081197

    DO - 10.3390/en4081197

    M3 - Article

    VL - 4

    SP - 1197

    EP - 1210

    JO - Energies

    JF - Energies

    SN - 1996-1073

    IS - 8

    ER -