A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials

M. Österberg (Corresponding Author), Jari Vartiainen, J. Lucenius, U. Hippi, J. Seppälä, R. Serimaa, J. Laine

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    151 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    In this study, we present a rapid method to prepare robust, solvent-resistant, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films that can be further surface-modified for functionality. The oxygen, water vapor, and grease barrier properties of the films were measured, and in addition, mechanical properties in the dry and wet state and solvent resistance were evaluated. The pure unmodified NFC films were good barriers for oxygen gas and grease. At a relative humidity below 65%, oxygen permeability of the pure and unmodified NFC films was below 0.6 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1, and no grease penetrated the film. However, the largest advantage of these films was their resistance to various solvents, such as water, methanol, toluene, and dimethylacetamide. Although they absorbed a substantial amount of solvent, the films could still be handled after 24 h of solvent soaking. Hot-pressing was introduced as a convenient method to not only increase the drying speed of the films but also enhance the robustness of the films. The wet strength of the films increased due to the pressing. Thus, they can be chemically or physically modified through adsorption or direct chemical reaction in both aqueous and organic solvents. Through these modifications, the properties of the film can be enhanced, introducing, for example, functionality, hydrophobicity, or bioactivity. Herein, a simple method using surface coating with wax to improve hydrophobicity and oxygen barrier properties at very high humidity is described. Through this modification, the oxygen permeability decreased further and was below 17 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1 even at 97.4% RH, and the water vapor transmission rate decreased from 600 to 40 g/m2 day. The wax treatment did not deteriorate the dry strength of the film. Possible reasons for the unique properties are discussed. The developed robust NFC films can be used as a generic, environmentally sustainable platform for functional materials.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)4640-4647
    Number of pages7
    JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
    Volume5
    Issue number11
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Cellulose films
    Functional materials
    Oxygen
    Lubricating greases
    Waxes
    Steam
    Hydrophobicity
    Water vapor
    Atmospheric humidity
    Toluene
    Hot pressing
    Bioactivity
    Organic solvents
    Methanol
    Chemical reactions
    Drying
    Gases
    Adsorption

    Keywords

    • nanofibrillated cellulose
    • barrier
    • film
    • oxygen permeability
    • solvent resistance
    • wet strength

    Cite this

    Österberg, M., Vartiainen, J., Lucenius, J., Hippi, U., Seppälä, J., Serimaa, R., & Laine, J. (2013). A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 5(11), 4640-4647. https://doi.org/10.1021/am401046x
    Österberg, M. ; Vartiainen, Jari ; Lucenius, J. ; Hippi, U. ; Seppälä, J. ; Serimaa, R. ; Laine, J. / A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials. In: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2013 ; Vol. 5, No. 11. pp. 4640-4647.
    @article{27d916cdf4d740eb8ca2faf3631b2ec5,
    title = "A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials",
    abstract = "In this study, we present a rapid method to prepare robust, solvent-resistant, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films that can be further surface-modified for functionality. The oxygen, water vapor, and grease barrier properties of the films were measured, and in addition, mechanical properties in the dry and wet state and solvent resistance were evaluated. The pure unmodified NFC films were good barriers for oxygen gas and grease. At a relative humidity below 65{\%}, oxygen permeability of the pure and unmodified NFC films was below 0.6 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1, and no grease penetrated the film. However, the largest advantage of these films was their resistance to various solvents, such as water, methanol, toluene, and dimethylacetamide. Although they absorbed a substantial amount of solvent, the films could still be handled after 24 h of solvent soaking. Hot-pressing was introduced as a convenient method to not only increase the drying speed of the films but also enhance the robustness of the films. The wet strength of the films increased due to the pressing. Thus, they can be chemically or physically modified through adsorption or direct chemical reaction in both aqueous and organic solvents. Through these modifications, the properties of the film can be enhanced, introducing, for example, functionality, hydrophobicity, or bioactivity. Herein, a simple method using surface coating with wax to improve hydrophobicity and oxygen barrier properties at very high humidity is described. Through this modification, the oxygen permeability decreased further and was below 17 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1 even at 97.4{\%} RH, and the water vapor transmission rate decreased from 600 to 40 g/m2 day. The wax treatment did not deteriorate the dry strength of the film. Possible reasons for the unique properties are discussed. The developed robust NFC films can be used as a generic, environmentally sustainable platform for functional materials.",
    keywords = "nanofibrillated cellulose, barrier, film, oxygen permeability, solvent resistance, wet strength",
    author = "M. {\"O}sterberg and Jari Vartiainen and J. Lucenius and U. Hippi and J. Sepp{\"a}l{\"a} and R. Serimaa and J. Laine",
    year = "2013",
    doi = "10.1021/am401046x",
    language = "English",
    volume = "5",
    pages = "4640--4647",
    journal = "ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces",
    issn = "1944-8244",
    publisher = "American Chemical Society ACS",
    number = "11",

    }

    Österberg, M, Vartiainen, J, Lucenius, J, Hippi, U, Seppälä, J, Serimaa, R & Laine, J 2013, 'A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials', ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 4640-4647. https://doi.org/10.1021/am401046x

    A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials. / Österberg, M. (Corresponding Author); Vartiainen, Jari; Lucenius, J.; Hippi, U.; Seppälä, J.; Serimaa, R.; Laine, J.

    In: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 5, No. 11, 2013, p. 4640-4647.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials

    AU - Österberg, M.

    AU - Vartiainen, Jari

    AU - Lucenius, J.

    AU - Hippi, U.

    AU - Seppälä, J.

    AU - Serimaa, R.

    AU - Laine, J.

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - In this study, we present a rapid method to prepare robust, solvent-resistant, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films that can be further surface-modified for functionality. The oxygen, water vapor, and grease barrier properties of the films were measured, and in addition, mechanical properties in the dry and wet state and solvent resistance were evaluated. The pure unmodified NFC films were good barriers for oxygen gas and grease. At a relative humidity below 65%, oxygen permeability of the pure and unmodified NFC films was below 0.6 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1, and no grease penetrated the film. However, the largest advantage of these films was their resistance to various solvents, such as water, methanol, toluene, and dimethylacetamide. Although they absorbed a substantial amount of solvent, the films could still be handled after 24 h of solvent soaking. Hot-pressing was introduced as a convenient method to not only increase the drying speed of the films but also enhance the robustness of the films. The wet strength of the films increased due to the pressing. Thus, they can be chemically or physically modified through adsorption or direct chemical reaction in both aqueous and organic solvents. Through these modifications, the properties of the film can be enhanced, introducing, for example, functionality, hydrophobicity, or bioactivity. Herein, a simple method using surface coating with wax to improve hydrophobicity and oxygen barrier properties at very high humidity is described. Through this modification, the oxygen permeability decreased further and was below 17 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1 even at 97.4% RH, and the water vapor transmission rate decreased from 600 to 40 g/m2 day. The wax treatment did not deteriorate the dry strength of the film. Possible reasons for the unique properties are discussed. The developed robust NFC films can be used as a generic, environmentally sustainable platform for functional materials.

    AB - In this study, we present a rapid method to prepare robust, solvent-resistant, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films that can be further surface-modified for functionality. The oxygen, water vapor, and grease barrier properties of the films were measured, and in addition, mechanical properties in the dry and wet state and solvent resistance were evaluated. The pure unmodified NFC films were good barriers for oxygen gas and grease. At a relative humidity below 65%, oxygen permeability of the pure and unmodified NFC films was below 0.6 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1, and no grease penetrated the film. However, the largest advantage of these films was their resistance to various solvents, such as water, methanol, toluene, and dimethylacetamide. Although they absorbed a substantial amount of solvent, the films could still be handled after 24 h of solvent soaking. Hot-pressing was introduced as a convenient method to not only increase the drying speed of the films but also enhance the robustness of the films. The wet strength of the films increased due to the pressing. Thus, they can be chemically or physically modified through adsorption or direct chemical reaction in both aqueous and organic solvents. Through these modifications, the properties of the film can be enhanced, introducing, for example, functionality, hydrophobicity, or bioactivity. Herein, a simple method using surface coating with wax to improve hydrophobicity and oxygen barrier properties at very high humidity is described. Through this modification, the oxygen permeability decreased further and was below 17 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1 even at 97.4% RH, and the water vapor transmission rate decreased from 600 to 40 g/m2 day. The wax treatment did not deteriorate the dry strength of the film. Possible reasons for the unique properties are discussed. The developed robust NFC films can be used as a generic, environmentally sustainable platform for functional materials.

    KW - nanofibrillated cellulose

    KW - barrier

    KW - film

    KW - oxygen permeability

    KW - solvent resistance

    KW - wet strength

    U2 - 10.1021/am401046x

    DO - 10.1021/am401046x

    M3 - Article

    VL - 5

    SP - 4640

    EP - 4647

    JO - ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

    JF - ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

    SN - 1944-8244

    IS - 11

    ER -