A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials

M. Österberg (Corresponding Author), Jari Vartiainen, J. Lucenius, U. Hippi, J. Seppälä, R. Serimaa, J. Laine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

147 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study, we present a rapid method to prepare robust, solvent-resistant, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films that can be further surface-modified for functionality. The oxygen, water vapor, and grease barrier properties of the films were measured, and in addition, mechanical properties in the dry and wet state and solvent resistance were evaluated. The pure unmodified NFC films were good barriers for oxygen gas and grease. At a relative humidity below 65%, oxygen permeability of the pure and unmodified NFC films was below 0.6 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1, and no grease penetrated the film. However, the largest advantage of these films was their resistance to various solvents, such as water, methanol, toluene, and dimethylacetamide. Although they absorbed a substantial amount of solvent, the films could still be handled after 24 h of solvent soaking. Hot-pressing was introduced as a convenient method to not only increase the drying speed of the films but also enhance the robustness of the films. The wet strength of the films increased due to the pressing. Thus, they can be chemically or physically modified through adsorption or direct chemical reaction in both aqueous and organic solvents. Through these modifications, the properties of the film can be enhanced, introducing, for example, functionality, hydrophobicity, or bioactivity. Herein, a simple method using surface coating with wax to improve hydrophobicity and oxygen barrier properties at very high humidity is described. Through this modification, the oxygen permeability decreased further and was below 17 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1 even at 97.4% RH, and the water vapor transmission rate decreased from 600 to 40 g/m2 day. The wax treatment did not deteriorate the dry strength of the film. Possible reasons for the unique properties are discussed. The developed robust NFC films can be used as a generic, environmentally sustainable platform for functional materials.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4640-4647
Number of pages7
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Volume5
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Cellulose films
Functional materials
Oxygen
Lubricating greases
Waxes
Steam
Hydrophobicity
Water vapor
Atmospheric humidity
Toluene
Hot pressing
Bioactivity
Organic solvents
Methanol
Chemical reactions
Drying
Gases
Adsorption

Keywords

  • nanofibrillated cellulose
  • barrier
  • film
  • oxygen permeability
  • solvent resistance
  • wet strength

Cite this

Österberg, M., Vartiainen, J., Lucenius, J., Hippi, U., Seppälä, J., Serimaa, R., & Laine, J. (2013). A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 5(11), 4640-4647. https://doi.org/10.1021/am401046x
Österberg, M. ; Vartiainen, Jari ; Lucenius, J. ; Hippi, U. ; Seppälä, J. ; Serimaa, R. ; Laine, J. / A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials. In: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2013 ; Vol. 5, No. 11. pp. 4640-4647.
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abstract = "In this study, we present a rapid method to prepare robust, solvent-resistant, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films that can be further surface-modified for functionality. The oxygen, water vapor, and grease barrier properties of the films were measured, and in addition, mechanical properties in the dry and wet state and solvent resistance were evaluated. The pure unmodified NFC films were good barriers for oxygen gas and grease. At a relative humidity below 65{\%}, oxygen permeability of the pure and unmodified NFC films was below 0.6 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1, and no grease penetrated the film. However, the largest advantage of these films was their resistance to various solvents, such as water, methanol, toluene, and dimethylacetamide. Although they absorbed a substantial amount of solvent, the films could still be handled after 24 h of solvent soaking. Hot-pressing was introduced as a convenient method to not only increase the drying speed of the films but also enhance the robustness of the films. The wet strength of the films increased due to the pressing. Thus, they can be chemically or physically modified through adsorption or direct chemical reaction in both aqueous and organic solvents. Through these modifications, the properties of the film can be enhanced, introducing, for example, functionality, hydrophobicity, or bioactivity. Herein, a simple method using surface coating with wax to improve hydrophobicity and oxygen barrier properties at very high humidity is described. Through this modification, the oxygen permeability decreased further and was below 17 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1 even at 97.4{\%} RH, and the water vapor transmission rate decreased from 600 to 40 g/m2 day. The wax treatment did not deteriorate the dry strength of the film. Possible reasons for the unique properties are discussed. The developed robust NFC films can be used as a generic, environmentally sustainable platform for functional materials.",
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Österberg, M, Vartiainen, J, Lucenius, J, Hippi, U, Seppälä, J, Serimaa, R & Laine, J 2013, 'A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials', ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 4640-4647. https://doi.org/10.1021/am401046x

A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials. / Österberg, M. (Corresponding Author); Vartiainen, Jari; Lucenius, J.; Hippi, U.; Seppälä, J.; Serimaa, R.; Laine, J.

In: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 5, No. 11, 2013, p. 4640-4647.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials

AU - Österberg, M.

AU - Vartiainen, Jari

AU - Lucenius, J.

AU - Hippi, U.

AU - Seppälä, J.

AU - Serimaa, R.

AU - Laine, J.

PY - 2013

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N2 - In this study, we present a rapid method to prepare robust, solvent-resistant, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films that can be further surface-modified for functionality. The oxygen, water vapor, and grease barrier properties of the films were measured, and in addition, mechanical properties in the dry and wet state and solvent resistance were evaluated. The pure unmodified NFC films were good barriers for oxygen gas and grease. At a relative humidity below 65%, oxygen permeability of the pure and unmodified NFC films was below 0.6 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1, and no grease penetrated the film. However, the largest advantage of these films was their resistance to various solvents, such as water, methanol, toluene, and dimethylacetamide. Although they absorbed a substantial amount of solvent, the films could still be handled after 24 h of solvent soaking. Hot-pressing was introduced as a convenient method to not only increase the drying speed of the films but also enhance the robustness of the films. The wet strength of the films increased due to the pressing. Thus, they can be chemically or physically modified through adsorption or direct chemical reaction in both aqueous and organic solvents. Through these modifications, the properties of the film can be enhanced, introducing, for example, functionality, hydrophobicity, or bioactivity. Herein, a simple method using surface coating with wax to improve hydrophobicity and oxygen barrier properties at very high humidity is described. Through this modification, the oxygen permeability decreased further and was below 17 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1 even at 97.4% RH, and the water vapor transmission rate decreased from 600 to 40 g/m2 day. The wax treatment did not deteriorate the dry strength of the film. Possible reasons for the unique properties are discussed. The developed robust NFC films can be used as a generic, environmentally sustainable platform for functional materials.

AB - In this study, we present a rapid method to prepare robust, solvent-resistant, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films that can be further surface-modified for functionality. The oxygen, water vapor, and grease barrier properties of the films were measured, and in addition, mechanical properties in the dry and wet state and solvent resistance were evaluated. The pure unmodified NFC films were good barriers for oxygen gas and grease. At a relative humidity below 65%, oxygen permeability of the pure and unmodified NFC films was below 0.6 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1, and no grease penetrated the film. However, the largest advantage of these films was their resistance to various solvents, such as water, methanol, toluene, and dimethylacetamide. Although they absorbed a substantial amount of solvent, the films could still be handled after 24 h of solvent soaking. Hot-pressing was introduced as a convenient method to not only increase the drying speed of the films but also enhance the robustness of the films. The wet strength of the films increased due to the pressing. Thus, they can be chemically or physically modified through adsorption or direct chemical reaction in both aqueous and organic solvents. Through these modifications, the properties of the film can be enhanced, introducing, for example, functionality, hydrophobicity, or bioactivity. Herein, a simple method using surface coating with wax to improve hydrophobicity and oxygen barrier properties at very high humidity is described. Through this modification, the oxygen permeability decreased further and was below 17 cm3 μm m–2 d–1 kPa–1 even at 97.4% RH, and the water vapor transmission rate decreased from 600 to 40 g/m2 day. The wax treatment did not deteriorate the dry strength of the film. Possible reasons for the unique properties are discussed. The developed robust NFC films can be used as a generic, environmentally sustainable platform for functional materials.

KW - nanofibrillated cellulose

KW - barrier

KW - film

KW - oxygen permeability

KW - solvent resistance

KW - wet strength

U2 - 10.1021/am401046x

DO - 10.1021/am401046x

M3 - Article

VL - 5

SP - 4640

EP - 4647

JO - ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

JF - ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

SN - 1944-8244

IS - 11

ER -