A flip chip process based on electroplated solder bumps

Jaakko Salonen, Jorma Salmi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    8 Citations (Scopus)


    Compared to wire bonding and TAB, flip chip technology using solder joints offers the highest pin count and packaging density and superior electrical performance. The chips are mounted upside down on the substrate, which can be made of silicon, ceramic, glass or - in some cases - even PCB. The extra processing steps required for chips are the deposition of a suitable thin film metal layer(s) on the standard Al pad and the formation of bumps. Also, the development of new fine line substrate technologies is required to utilize the full potential of the technology. In our bumping process, bump deposition is done by electroplating, which was chosen for its simplicity and economy.

    Sputter deposited molybdenum and copper are used as thin film layers between the aluminum pads and the solder bumps. A reason for this choice is that the metals can be selectively etched after bumping using the bumps as a mask, thus circumventing the need for a separate mask for etching the thin film metals. The bumps are electroplated from a binary Pb-Sn bath using a thick liquid photoresist.

    An extensively modified commercial flip chip bonder is used for alignment and bonding. Heat assisted tack bonding is used to attach the chips to the substrate, and final reflow joining is done without flux in a vacuum furnace.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)230-233
    Number of pages4
    JournalPhysica Scripta
    Issue numberT54
    Publication statusPublished - 1994
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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