Immunoliposomes were prepared by using biosynthetically lipid-tagged anti-2-phenyloxazolone single-chain antibody. Carboxyfluorescein as a fluorescent marker was encapsulated in the immunoliposomes. Some conditions for fluoroimmunoassay using the immunoliposomes were optimized by binding assays with hapten-coated microtiter wells. A competitive fluoroimmunoassay for the caproic acid conjugate of 2-phenyloxazolone as a model antigen was performed with the immunoliposomes. In the optimized assay conditions, antigen could be determined in the concentration range from 10-7 to 10-9 M.