A Framework for Understanding Human Factors Issues in Border Control Automation

Minna Kulju (Corresponding author), Mari Ylikauppila, Sirra Toivonen, Laura Salmela

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference articleScientificpeer-review


    New security threats and increasing traveler flows as well as needs to enhance facilitation and security in EU external cross-border traffic have accelerated the use of novel technologies in border control. Especially at airports, automated border control, more commonly known as e-gates, have been taken widely into use. With e-gates, travelers perform border check as self-service, and the role of the border guards is to monitor or possibly also assist travelers passing the border. The introduction of automated systems significantly reshapes current ways of conducting border control from the border guard’s perspective, and automation thus requires new skills from them. Understanding the effects of automation on the work tasks and work performance of border guards requires thorough examination. This paper introduces key Human Factors issues affecting border guard and border control system performance. The results are based on literature review and field studies conducted in different border control points within six European countries. The paper presents a Human Factors framework for understanding the complex nature of the border control and different factors influencing to both border control process and border guard performance within it.
    Original languageEnglish
    Number of pages15
    Publication statusPublished - 21 Aug 2018
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible
    Event5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference Human-Work Interaction Design, HWID’18: Designing Engaging Automation - Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
    Duration: 20 Aug 201821 Aug 2018
    Conference number: 5


    Conference5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference Human-Work Interaction Design, HWID’18
    Abbreviated titleHWID’18
    Internet address


    • EU
    • Schengen area
    • automated border control
    • border digitalization
    • human factors
    • human factors framework


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