New security threats and increasing traveler flows as well as needs to enhance facilitation and security in EU external cross-border traffic have accelerated the use of novel technologies in border control. Especially at airports, automated border control, more commonly known as e-gates, have been taken widely into use. With e-gates, travelers perform border check as self-service, and the role of the border guards is to monitor or possibly also assist travelers passing the border. The introduction of automated systems significantly reshapes current ways of conducting border control from the border guard’s perspective, and automation thus requires new skills from them. Understanding the effects of automation on the work tasks and work performance of border guards requires thorough examination. This paper introduces key Human Factors issues affecting border guard and border control system performance. The results are based on literature review and field studies conducted in different border control points within six European countries. The paper presents a Human Factors framework for understanding the complex nature of the border control and different factors influencing to both border control process and border guard performance within it.
|Number of pages||15|
|Publication status||Published - 21 Aug 2018|
|MoE publication type||Not Eligible|
|Event||5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference Human-Work Interaction Design, HWID’18: Designing Engaging Automation - Aalto University, Espoo, Finland|
Duration: 20 Aug 2018 → 21 Aug 2018
Conference number: 5
|Conference||5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference Human-Work Interaction Design, HWID’18|
|Period||20/08/18 → 21/08/18|
- Schengen area
- automated border control
- border digitalization
- human factors
- human factors framework
Kulju, M., Ylikauppila, M., Toivonen, S., & Salmela, L. (2018). A Framework for Understanding Human Factors Issues in Border Control Automation. Paper presented at 5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference Human-Work Interaction Design, HWID’18, Espoo, Finland.