A Framework for Understanding Human Factors Issues in Border Control Automation

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    New security threats and increasing traveler flows as well as needs to enhance facilitation and security in EU external cross-border traffic have accelerated the use of novel technologies in border control. Especially at airports, automated border control, more commonly known as e-gates, have been taken widely into use. With e-gates, travelers perform border check as self-service, and the role of the border guards is to monitor or possibly also assist travelers passing the border. The introduction of automated systems significantly reshapes current ways of conducting border control from the border guard’s perspective, and automation thus requires new skills from them. Understanding the effects of automation on the work tasks and work performance of border guards requires thorough examination. This paper introduces key Human Factors issues affecting border guard and border control system performance. The results are based on literature review and field studies conducted in different border control points within six European countries. The paper presents a Human Factors framework for understanding the complex nature of the border control and different factors influencing to both border control process and border guard performance within it.
    LanguageEnglish
    Title of host publicationHuman Work Interaction Design. Designing Engaging Automation
    Subtitle of host publication5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference, HWID 2018, Espoo, Finland, August 20 - 21, 2018, Revised Selected Papers
    EditorsB.R. Barricelli, V. Roto, T. Clemensen, P. Campos, A. Lopes, F. Goncalves, J. Abdelnour Nocera
    PublisherSpringer
    Pages215-228
    ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-05297-3
    ISBN (Print)978-3-030-05296-6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2019
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible
    Event5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference Human-Work Interaction Design, HWID’18: Designing Engaging Automation - Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
    Duration: 20 Aug 201821 Aug 2018
    Conference number: 5
    https://blogs.aalto.fi/hwid2018/

    Publication series

    NameIFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology
    PublisherSpringer
    ISSN (Print)1868-4238

    Conference

    Conference5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference Human-Work Interaction Design, HWID’18
    Abbreviated titleHWID’18
    CountryFinland
    CityEspoo
    Period20/08/1821/08/18
    Internet address

    Fingerprint

    Human engineering
    Automation
    Airports
    Control systems

    Keywords

    • EU
    • Schengen area
    • automated border control
    • border digitalization
    • human factors
    • human factors framework

    OKM Publication Types

    • A3 Refereed Book Section

    OKM Open Access Status

    • 0 Not Open Access

    Cite this

    Kulju, M., Ylikauppila, M., Toivonen, S., & Salmela, L. (2019). A Framework for Understanding Human Factors Issues in Border Control Automation. In B. R. Barricelli, V. Roto, T. Clemensen, P. Campos, A. Lopes, F. Goncalves, & J. Abdelnour Nocera (Eds.), Human Work Interaction Design. Designing Engaging Automation: 5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference, HWID 2018, Espoo, Finland, August 20 - 21, 2018, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 215-228). (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05297-3_15
    Kulju, Minna ; Ylikauppila, Mari ; Toivonen, Sirra ; Salmela, Laura. / A Framework for Understanding Human Factors Issues in Border Control Automation. Human Work Interaction Design. Designing Engaging Automation: 5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference, HWID 2018, Espoo, Finland, August 20 - 21, 2018, Revised Selected Papers. editor / B.R. Barricelli ; V. Roto ; T. Clemensen ; P. Campos ; A. Lopes ; F. Goncalves ; J. Abdelnour Nocera. Springer, 2019. pp. 215-228 (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology).
    @inbook{ce009b1f616b4a62b5086b5d00dac298,
    title = "A Framework for Understanding Human Factors Issues in Border Control Automation",
    abstract = "New security threats and increasing traveler flows as well as needs to enhance facilitation and security in EU external cross-border traffic have accelerated the use of novel technologies in border control. Especially at airports, automated border control, more commonly known as e-gates, have been taken widely into use. With e-gates, travelers perform border check as self-service, and the role of the border guards is to monitor or possibly also assist travelers passing the border. The introduction of automated systems significantly reshapes current ways of conducting border control from the border guard’s perspective, and automation thus requires new skills from them. Understanding the effects of automation on the work tasks and work performance of border guards requires thorough examination. This paper introduces key Human Factors issues affecting border guard and border control system performance. The results are based on literature review and field studies conducted in different border control points within six European countries. The paper presents a Human Factors framework for understanding the complex nature of the border control and different factors influencing to both border control process and border guard performance within it.",
    keywords = "EU, Schengen area, automated border control, border digitalization, human factors, human factors framework",
    author = "Minna Kulju and Mari Ylikauppila and Sirra Toivonen and Laura Salmela",
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    Kulju, M, Ylikauppila, M, Toivonen, S & Salmela, L 2019, A Framework for Understanding Human Factors Issues in Border Control Automation. in BR Barricelli, V Roto, T Clemensen, P Campos, A Lopes, F Goncalves & J Abdelnour Nocera (eds), Human Work Interaction Design. Designing Engaging Automation: 5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference, HWID 2018, Espoo, Finland, August 20 - 21, 2018, Revised Selected Papers. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Springer, pp. 215-228, 5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference Human-Work Interaction Design, HWID’18, Espoo, Finland, 20/08/18. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05297-3_15

    A Framework for Understanding Human Factors Issues in Border Control Automation. / Kulju, Minna (Corresponding author); Ylikauppila, Mari; Toivonen, Sirra; Salmela, Laura.

    Human Work Interaction Design. Designing Engaging Automation: 5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference, HWID 2018, Espoo, Finland, August 20 - 21, 2018, Revised Selected Papers. ed. / B.R. Barricelli; V. Roto; T. Clemensen; P. Campos; A. Lopes; F. Goncalves; J. Abdelnour Nocera. Springer, 2019. p. 215-228 (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - CHAP

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    AU - Kulju, Minna

    AU - Ylikauppila, Mari

    AU - Toivonen, Sirra

    AU - Salmela, Laura

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    PY - 2019

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    N2 - New security threats and increasing traveler flows as well as needs to enhance facilitation and security in EU external cross-border traffic have accelerated the use of novel technologies in border control. Especially at airports, automated border control, more commonly known as e-gates, have been taken widely into use. With e-gates, travelers perform border check as self-service, and the role of the border guards is to monitor or possibly also assist travelers passing the border. The introduction of automated systems significantly reshapes current ways of conducting border control from the border guard’s perspective, and automation thus requires new skills from them. Understanding the effects of automation on the work tasks and work performance of border guards requires thorough examination. This paper introduces key Human Factors issues affecting border guard and border control system performance. The results are based on literature review and field studies conducted in different border control points within six European countries. The paper presents a Human Factors framework for understanding the complex nature of the border control and different factors influencing to both border control process and border guard performance within it.

    AB - New security threats and increasing traveler flows as well as needs to enhance facilitation and security in EU external cross-border traffic have accelerated the use of novel technologies in border control. Especially at airports, automated border control, more commonly known as e-gates, have been taken widely into use. With e-gates, travelers perform border check as self-service, and the role of the border guards is to monitor or possibly also assist travelers passing the border. The introduction of automated systems significantly reshapes current ways of conducting border control from the border guard’s perspective, and automation thus requires new skills from them. Understanding the effects of automation on the work tasks and work performance of border guards requires thorough examination. This paper introduces key Human Factors issues affecting border guard and border control system performance. The results are based on literature review and field studies conducted in different border control points within six European countries. The paper presents a Human Factors framework for understanding the complex nature of the border control and different factors influencing to both border control process and border guard performance within it.

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    KW - Schengen area

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    KW - border digitalization

    KW - human factors

    KW - human factors framework

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    DO - 10.1007/978-3-030-05297-3_15

    M3 - Chapter or book article

    SN - 978-3-030-05296-6

    T3 - IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology

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    BT - Human Work Interaction Design. Designing Engaging Automation

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    A2 - Roto, V.

    A2 - Clemensen, T.

    A2 - Campos, P.

    A2 - Lopes, A.

    A2 - Goncalves, F.

    A2 - Abdelnour Nocera, J.

    PB - Springer

    ER -

    Kulju M, Ylikauppila M, Toivonen S, Salmela L. A Framework for Understanding Human Factors Issues in Border Control Automation. In Barricelli BR, Roto V, Clemensen T, Campos P, Lopes A, Goncalves F, Abdelnour Nocera J, editors, Human Work Interaction Design. Designing Engaging Automation: 5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference, HWID 2018, Espoo, Finland, August 20 - 21, 2018, Revised Selected Papers. Springer. 2019. p. 215-228. (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05297-3_15