A framework for understanding human factors issues in border control automation

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)


    New security threats and increasing traveler flows as well as needs to enhance facilitation and security in EU external cross-border traffic have accelerated the use of novel technologies in border control. Especially at airports, automated border control, more commonly known as e-gates, have been taken widely into use. With e-gates, travelers perform border check as self-service, and the role of the border guards is to monitor or possibly also assist travelers passing the border. The introduction of automated systems significantly reshapes current ways of conducting border control from the border guard’s perspective, and automation thus requires new skills from them. Understanding the effects of automation on the work tasks and work performance of border guards requires thorough examination. This paper introduces key Human Factors issues affecting border guard and border control system performance. The results are based on literature review and field studies conducted in different border control points within six European countries. The paper presents a Human Factors framework for understanding the complex nature of the border control and different factors influencing to both border control process and border guard performance within it.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationHuman Work Interaction Design
    Subtitle of host publicationDesigning Engaging Automation, HWID 2018
    EditorsTorkil Clemmensen, Virpi Roto, Pedro Campos, Arminda Lopes, Frederica Gonçalves, Barbara Rita Barricelli, José Abdelnour-Nocera
    Place of PublicationCham
    ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-05297-3
    ISBN (Print)978-3-030-05296-6
    Publication statusPublished - 2019
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    Event5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2018 - Espoo, Finland
    Duration: 20 Aug 201821 Aug 2018
    Conference number: 5

    Publication series

    SeriesIFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology


    Conference5th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2018
    Abbreviated titleHWID 2018


    This work was conducted under the BODEGA project (Proactive Enhancement of Human Performance in Border Control. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grand agreement No. 653676.


    • Automated border control
    • Border digitalization
    • EU
    • Human factors
    • Human factors framework
    • Schengen area


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