A microfabricated nebulizer for liquid vaporization in chemical analysis

Sami Franssila, Seppo Marttila, Kai Kolari, Pekka Östman, Tapio Kotiaho, Risto Kostiainen, Reijo Lehtiniemi, Carl-Magnus Fager, Jorma Manninen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A miniaturized nebulizer chip for vaporization of liquid samples for mass spectrometry has been designed, fabricated, and characterized for fluidic and thermal performance. Silicon/glass chip has a liquid sample channel placed centrally between symmetric nebulizer gas channels. The liquid sample is nebulized and vaporised by an integrated platinum heater. The vaporized sample exits through an etched nozzle, and is ionized by an external corona needle. The ions are analysed by a mass spectrometer. The chip has been fabricated in both anisotropically wet etched and DRIE versions in silicon, with an anodically bonded Pyrex glass cover plate. Three different fluidic inlet designs are presented, with both through-wafer and edge insert versions. The shape of the erupting gas jet has been visualized by infrared thermography by using a low-diffusivity imaging screen and high heat capacity helium as a test gas. Dimensions of the jet's thermal footprint on the screen show that the jet is very narrow and confined, and this is confirmed in mass spectrometry results. This confined jet supplies the sample to the ionization region near corona tip, enabling efficient use of very small sample amounts and submicroliter flows.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1251-1259
JournalJournal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Volume15
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Vaporization
Liquids
Fluidics
Chemical analysis
Mass spectrometry
Gases
Glass
Silicon
Mass spectrometers
Needles
Specific heat
Ionization
Helium
Platinum
Nozzles
Imaging techniques
Ions
Hot Temperature

Keywords

  • fluidics
  • infrared imaging
  • mass spectrometry
  • micromachining
  • silicon

Cite this

Franssila, S., Marttila, S., Kolari, K., Östman, P., Kotiaho, T., Kostiainen, R., ... Manninen, J. (2006). A microfabricated nebulizer for liquid vaporization in chemical analysis. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 15(5), 1251-1259. https://doi.org/10.1109/JMEMS.2006.879671
Franssila, Sami ; Marttila, Seppo ; Kolari, Kai ; Östman, Pekka ; Kotiaho, Tapio ; Kostiainen, Risto ; Lehtiniemi, Reijo ; Fager, Carl-Magnus ; Manninen, Jorma. / A microfabricated nebulizer for liquid vaporization in chemical analysis. In: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems. 2006 ; Vol. 15, No. 5. pp. 1251-1259.
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abstract = "A miniaturized nebulizer chip for vaporization of liquid samples for mass spectrometry has been designed, fabricated, and characterized for fluidic and thermal performance. Silicon/glass chip has a liquid sample channel placed centrally between symmetric nebulizer gas channels. The liquid sample is nebulized and vaporised by an integrated platinum heater. The vaporized sample exits through an etched nozzle, and is ionized by an external corona needle. The ions are analysed by a mass spectrometer. The chip has been fabricated in both anisotropically wet etched and DRIE versions in silicon, with an anodically bonded Pyrex glass cover plate. Three different fluidic inlet designs are presented, with both through-wafer and edge insert versions. The shape of the erupting gas jet has been visualized by infrared thermography by using a low-diffusivity imaging screen and high heat capacity helium as a test gas. Dimensions of the jet's thermal footprint on the screen show that the jet is very narrow and confined, and this is confirmed in mass spectrometry results. This confined jet supplies the sample to the ionization region near corona tip, enabling efficient use of very small sample amounts and submicroliter flows.",
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author = "Sami Franssila and Seppo Marttila and Kai Kolari and Pekka {\"O}stman and Tapio Kotiaho and Risto Kostiainen and Reijo Lehtiniemi and Carl-Magnus Fager and Jorma Manninen",
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Franssila, S, Marttila, S, Kolari, K, Östman, P, Kotiaho, T, Kostiainen, R, Lehtiniemi, R, Fager, C-M & Manninen, J 2006, 'A microfabricated nebulizer for liquid vaporization in chemical analysis', Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1251-1259. https://doi.org/10.1109/JMEMS.2006.879671

A microfabricated nebulizer for liquid vaporization in chemical analysis. / Franssila, Sami; Marttila, Seppo; Kolari, Kai; Östman, Pekka; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Lehtiniemi, Reijo; Fager, Carl-Magnus; Manninen, Jorma.

In: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2006, p. 1251-1259.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - A microfabricated nebulizer for liquid vaporization in chemical analysis

AU - Franssila, Sami

AU - Marttila, Seppo

AU - Kolari, Kai

AU - Östman, Pekka

AU - Kotiaho, Tapio

AU - Kostiainen, Risto

AU - Lehtiniemi, Reijo

AU - Fager, Carl-Magnus

AU - Manninen, Jorma

PY - 2006

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N2 - A miniaturized nebulizer chip for vaporization of liquid samples for mass spectrometry has been designed, fabricated, and characterized for fluidic and thermal performance. Silicon/glass chip has a liquid sample channel placed centrally between symmetric nebulizer gas channels. The liquid sample is nebulized and vaporised by an integrated platinum heater. The vaporized sample exits through an etched nozzle, and is ionized by an external corona needle. The ions are analysed by a mass spectrometer. The chip has been fabricated in both anisotropically wet etched and DRIE versions in silicon, with an anodically bonded Pyrex glass cover plate. Three different fluidic inlet designs are presented, with both through-wafer and edge insert versions. The shape of the erupting gas jet has been visualized by infrared thermography by using a low-diffusivity imaging screen and high heat capacity helium as a test gas. Dimensions of the jet's thermal footprint on the screen show that the jet is very narrow and confined, and this is confirmed in mass spectrometry results. This confined jet supplies the sample to the ionization region near corona tip, enabling efficient use of very small sample amounts and submicroliter flows.

AB - A miniaturized nebulizer chip for vaporization of liquid samples for mass spectrometry has been designed, fabricated, and characterized for fluidic and thermal performance. Silicon/glass chip has a liquid sample channel placed centrally between symmetric nebulizer gas channels. The liquid sample is nebulized and vaporised by an integrated platinum heater. The vaporized sample exits through an etched nozzle, and is ionized by an external corona needle. The ions are analysed by a mass spectrometer. The chip has been fabricated in both anisotropically wet etched and DRIE versions in silicon, with an anodically bonded Pyrex glass cover plate. Three different fluidic inlet designs are presented, with both through-wafer and edge insert versions. The shape of the erupting gas jet has been visualized by infrared thermography by using a low-diffusivity imaging screen and high heat capacity helium as a test gas. Dimensions of the jet's thermal footprint on the screen show that the jet is very narrow and confined, and this is confirmed in mass spectrometry results. This confined jet supplies the sample to the ionization region near corona tip, enabling efficient use of very small sample amounts and submicroliter flows.

KW - fluidics

KW - infrared imaging

KW - mass spectrometry

KW - micromachining

KW - silicon

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JF - Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems

SN - 1057-7157

IS - 5

ER -

Franssila S, Marttila S, Kolari K, Östman P, Kotiaho T, Kostiainen R et al. A microfabricated nebulizer for liquid vaporization in chemical analysis. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems. 2006;15(5):1251-1259. https://doi.org/10.1109/JMEMS.2006.879671