A Modular Architecture of Command-and-Control Software in Multi-Sensor Systems Devoted to Public Security

Maria Luisa Villani (Corresponding Author), Antonio De Nicola, Henri Bouma, Arthur van Rooijen, Pauli Räsänen, Johannes Peltola, Sirra Toivonen, Massimiliano Guarneri, Cristiano Stifini, Luigi De Dominicis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Preventing terrorist attacks at soft targets has become a priority for our society. The realization of sensor systems for automatic threat detection in crowded spaces, such as airports and metro stations, is challenged by the limited sensing coverage capability of the devices in place due to the variety of dangerous materials, to the scanning rate of the devices, and to the detection area covered. In this context, effectiveness of the physical configuration of the system based on the detectors used, the coordination of the sensor data collection, and the real time data analysis for threat identification and localization to enable timely reactions by the security guards are essential requirements for such integrated sensor-based applications. This paper describes a modular distributed architecture of a command-and-control software, which is independent from the specific detectors and where sensor data fusion is supported by two intelligent video systems. Furthermore, the system installation can be replicated at different locations of a public space. Person tracking and later re-identification in a separate area, and tracking hand-over between different video components, provide the command-and-control with localization information of threats to timely activate alarm management and support the activity of subsequent detectors. The architecture has been implemented for the NATO-funded DEXTER program and has been successfully tested in a big city trial at a metro station in Rome both when integrated with two real detectors of weapons and explosives and as a stand-alone system. The discussion focuses on the software functions of the command-and-control and on the flexibility and re-use of the system in wider settings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number162
Number of pages25
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • command and control
  • position prediction
  • public security
  • re-identification
  • sensor data fusion
  • threat detection


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