A multi-criteria analysis of climate, health and acidification impacts due to greenhouse gases and air pollution: The case of household-level heating technologies

Tommi Ekholm, N. Karvosenoja, J. Tissari, Laura Sokka, K. Kupiainen, O. Sippula, M. Savolahti, Jorma Jokiniemi, Ilkka Savolainen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    Abstract

    This paper considers the climate, health and acidification impacts associated with household-level heating technologies; the policy-based incentives that current emission limits might create for switching between these technologies; and the societal costs that would arise from the externalities associated with the emissions. The data and selection of appliances are applicable to Finland, but the approach can be used to analyse also other countries with similar environmental policies. The results indicate that none of the assessed technologies outperforms the others in every impact category, and that trade-offs need to be made between the impacts. Two perspectives are used to compare these trade-offs. From a policy point of view, a switch from light oil to any of the studied biomass-based appliances would help to achieve national emission limits for CO2 and SO2. However, such a switch could potentially increase the externality costs to the society due to increased population exposure to primary PM2.5. Based on this, the results suggest that the present emission reduction policies create incentives that can possibly direct decisions toward sub-optimal technology choices.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)499-509
    JournalEnergy Policy
    Volume74
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Acidification
    Air pollution
    Greenhouse gases
    acidification
    greenhouse gas
    atmospheric pollution
    Health
    heating
    Heating
    climate
    incentive
    Switches
    cost
    environmental policy
    Costs
    Biomass
    health
    analysis
    household
    oil

    Keywords

    • heating
    • climate
    • air pollution
    • greenhouse gases
    • residential wood combustion
    • emissions

    Cite this

    Ekholm, Tommi ; Karvosenoja, N. ; Tissari, J. ; Sokka, Laura ; Kupiainen, K. ; Sippula, O. ; Savolahti, M. ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Savolainen, Ilkka. / A multi-criteria analysis of climate, health and acidification impacts due to greenhouse gases and air pollution : The case of household-level heating technologies. In: Energy Policy. 2014 ; Vol. 74. pp. 499-509.
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    abstract = "This paper considers the climate, health and acidification impacts associated with household-level heating technologies; the policy-based incentives that current emission limits might create for switching between these technologies; and the societal costs that would arise from the externalities associated with the emissions. The data and selection of appliances are applicable to Finland, but the approach can be used to analyse also other countries with similar environmental policies. The results indicate that none of the assessed technologies outperforms the others in every impact category, and that trade-offs need to be made between the impacts. Two perspectives are used to compare these trade-offs. From a policy point of view, a switch from light oil to any of the studied biomass-based appliances would help to achieve national emission limits for CO2 and SO2. However, such a switch could potentially increase the externality costs to the society due to increased population exposure to primary PM2.5. Based on this, the results suggest that the present emission reduction policies create incentives that can possibly direct decisions toward sub-optimal technology choices.",
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    author = "Tommi Ekholm and N. Karvosenoja and J. Tissari and Laura Sokka and K. Kupiainen and O. Sippula and M. Savolahti and Jorma Jokiniemi and Ilkka Savolainen",
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    A multi-criteria analysis of climate, health and acidification impacts due to greenhouse gases and air pollution : The case of household-level heating technologies. / Ekholm, Tommi; Karvosenoja, N.; Tissari, J.; Sokka, Laura; Kupiainen, K.; Sippula, O.; Savolahti, M.; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Savolainen, Ilkka.

    In: Energy Policy, Vol. 74, 2014, p. 499-509.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    T2 - The case of household-level heating technologies

    AU - Ekholm, Tommi

    AU - Karvosenoja, N.

    AU - Tissari, J.

    AU - Sokka, Laura

    AU - Kupiainen, K.

    AU - Sippula, O.

    AU - Savolahti, M.

    AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

    AU - Savolainen, Ilkka

    PY - 2014

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    AB - This paper considers the climate, health and acidification impacts associated with household-level heating technologies; the policy-based incentives that current emission limits might create for switching between these technologies; and the societal costs that would arise from the externalities associated with the emissions. The data and selection of appliances are applicable to Finland, but the approach can be used to analyse also other countries with similar environmental policies. The results indicate that none of the assessed technologies outperforms the others in every impact category, and that trade-offs need to be made between the impacts. Two perspectives are used to compare these trade-offs. From a policy point of view, a switch from light oil to any of the studied biomass-based appliances would help to achieve national emission limits for CO2 and SO2. However, such a switch could potentially increase the externality costs to the society due to increased population exposure to primary PM2.5. Based on this, the results suggest that the present emission reduction policies create incentives that can possibly direct decisions toward sub-optimal technology choices.

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