A new model of spongy icing from first principles

R. Blackmore, Lasse Makkonen, Edward Lozowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

[1] A new icing model has been developed to predict the sponginess (liquid fraction) and growth rate of freshwater ice accretions growing under a surface film of unfrozen water.
This model is developed from first principles and does not require experimental sponginess data to tune the model parameters. The model identifies icing conditions that include no accretion, dry accretion, glaze accretion, spongy nonshedding, and spongy shedding regimes.
It is a steady state model for a stationary vertical cylinder intercepting horizontally directed spray. The model predicts both the accretion mass growth flux and the accretion sponginess. The model results suggest that spongy shedding and spongy nonshedding regimes are common under the high liquid flux conditions typical of freshwater ship icing.
Moreover, the unfrozen liquid incorporated into the spongy ice matrix can substantially increase the ice accretion load over that which would be predicted purely thermodynamically. Despite differences in the experimental setup, the model's performance compares well with two independent freshwater experimental data sets for icing on horizontal rotating cylinders.
The model performs well in its prediction of both accretion sponginess and growth rate. The model predicts sponginess with a variation in liquid mass fraction of about 0.2–0.5, over the range of air temperature of 0°C to −30°C, in agreement with observations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)AAC 9-1-AAC 9-15
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research
Volume107
Issue numberD21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

ice formation
accretion
Ice
ice
liquid
liquids
Liquids
Ice problems
glazes
Fluxes
Glazes
rotating cylinders
ships
films (materials)
spray
sprayers
air temperature

Keywords

  • icing
  • icing models
  • ice

Cite this

Blackmore, R. ; Makkonen, Lasse ; Lozowski, Edward. / A new model of spongy icing from first principles. In: Journal of Geophysical Research. 2002 ; Vol. 107, No. D21 . pp. AAC 9-1-AAC 9-15.
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title = "A new model of spongy icing from first principles",
abstract = "[1] A new icing model has been developed to predict the sponginess (liquid fraction) and growth rate of freshwater ice accretions growing under a surface film of unfrozen water.This model is developed from first principles and does not require experimental sponginess data to tune the model parameters. The model identifies icing conditions that include no accretion, dry accretion, glaze accretion, spongy nonshedding, and spongy shedding regimes. It is a steady state model for a stationary vertical cylinder intercepting horizontally directed spray. The model predicts both the accretion mass growth flux and the accretion sponginess. The model results suggest that spongy shedding and spongy nonshedding regimes are common under the high liquid flux conditions typical of freshwater ship icing. Moreover, the unfrozen liquid incorporated into the spongy ice matrix can substantially increase the ice accretion load over that which would be predicted purely thermodynamically. Despite differences in the experimental setup, the model's performance compares well with two independent freshwater experimental data sets for icing on horizontal rotating cylinders. The model performs well in its prediction of both accretion sponginess and growth rate. The model predicts sponginess with a variation in liquid mass fraction of about 0.2–0.5, over the range of air temperature of 0°C to −30°C, in agreement with observations.",
keywords = "icing, icing models, ice",
author = "R. Blackmore and Lasse Makkonen and Edward Lozowski",
note = "Project code: R1SU00956",
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A new model of spongy icing from first principles. / Blackmore, R.; Makkonen, Lasse; Lozowski, Edward.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, No. D21 , 2002, p. AAC 9-1-AAC 9-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A new model of spongy icing from first principles

AU - Blackmore, R.

AU - Makkonen, Lasse

AU - Lozowski, Edward

N1 - Project code: R1SU00956

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - [1] A new icing model has been developed to predict the sponginess (liquid fraction) and growth rate of freshwater ice accretions growing under a surface film of unfrozen water.This model is developed from first principles and does not require experimental sponginess data to tune the model parameters. The model identifies icing conditions that include no accretion, dry accretion, glaze accretion, spongy nonshedding, and spongy shedding regimes. It is a steady state model for a stationary vertical cylinder intercepting horizontally directed spray. The model predicts both the accretion mass growth flux and the accretion sponginess. The model results suggest that spongy shedding and spongy nonshedding regimes are common under the high liquid flux conditions typical of freshwater ship icing. Moreover, the unfrozen liquid incorporated into the spongy ice matrix can substantially increase the ice accretion load over that which would be predicted purely thermodynamically. Despite differences in the experimental setup, the model's performance compares well with two independent freshwater experimental data sets for icing on horizontal rotating cylinders. The model performs well in its prediction of both accretion sponginess and growth rate. The model predicts sponginess with a variation in liquid mass fraction of about 0.2–0.5, over the range of air temperature of 0°C to −30°C, in agreement with observations.

AB - [1] A new icing model has been developed to predict the sponginess (liquid fraction) and growth rate of freshwater ice accretions growing under a surface film of unfrozen water.This model is developed from first principles and does not require experimental sponginess data to tune the model parameters. The model identifies icing conditions that include no accretion, dry accretion, glaze accretion, spongy nonshedding, and spongy shedding regimes. It is a steady state model for a stationary vertical cylinder intercepting horizontally directed spray. The model predicts both the accretion mass growth flux and the accretion sponginess. The model results suggest that spongy shedding and spongy nonshedding regimes are common under the high liquid flux conditions typical of freshwater ship icing. Moreover, the unfrozen liquid incorporated into the spongy ice matrix can substantially increase the ice accretion load over that which would be predicted purely thermodynamically. Despite differences in the experimental setup, the model's performance compares well with two independent freshwater experimental data sets for icing on horizontal rotating cylinders. The model performs well in its prediction of both accretion sponginess and growth rate. The model predicts sponginess with a variation in liquid mass fraction of about 0.2–0.5, over the range of air temperature of 0°C to −30°C, in agreement with observations.

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U2 - 10.1029/2001JD001223

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