A new model of spongy icing from first principles

R. Blackmore, Lasse Makkonen, Edward Lozowski

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    Abstract

    [1] A new icing model has been developed to predict the sponginess (liquid fraction) and growth rate of freshwater ice accretions growing under a surface film of unfrozen water.
    This model is developed from first principles and does not require experimental sponginess data to tune the model parameters. The model identifies icing conditions that include no accretion, dry accretion, glaze accretion, spongy nonshedding, and spongy shedding regimes.
    It is a steady state model for a stationary vertical cylinder intercepting horizontally directed spray. The model predicts both the accretion mass growth flux and the accretion sponginess. The model results suggest that spongy shedding and spongy nonshedding regimes are common under the high liquid flux conditions typical of freshwater ship icing.
    Moreover, the unfrozen liquid incorporated into the spongy ice matrix can substantially increase the ice accretion load over that which would be predicted purely thermodynamically. Despite differences in the experimental setup, the model's performance compares well with two independent freshwater experimental data sets for icing on horizontal rotating cylinders.
    The model performs well in its prediction of both accretion sponginess and growth rate. The model predicts sponginess with a variation in liquid mass fraction of about 0.2–0.5, over the range of air temperature of 0°C to −30°C, in agreement with observations.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)AAC 9-1-AAC 9-15
    JournalJournal of Geophysical Research
    Volume107
    Issue numberD21
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2002
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    ice formation
    accretion
    Ice
    ice
    liquid
    liquids
    Liquids
    Ice problems
    glazes
    Fluxes
    Glazes
    rotating cylinders
    ships
    films (materials)
    spray
    sprayers
    air temperature

    Keywords

    • icing
    • icing models
    • ice

    Cite this

    Blackmore, R. ; Makkonen, Lasse ; Lozowski, Edward. / A new model of spongy icing from first principles. In: Journal of Geophysical Research. 2002 ; Vol. 107, No. D21 . pp. AAC 9-1-AAC 9-15.
    @article{0a8b3d08572f4b27974a6a05cfd6b54f,
    title = "A new model of spongy icing from first principles",
    abstract = "[1] A new icing model has been developed to predict the sponginess (liquid fraction) and growth rate of freshwater ice accretions growing under a surface film of unfrozen water.This model is developed from first principles and does not require experimental sponginess data to tune the model parameters. The model identifies icing conditions that include no accretion, dry accretion, glaze accretion, spongy nonshedding, and spongy shedding regimes. It is a steady state model for a stationary vertical cylinder intercepting horizontally directed spray. The model predicts both the accretion mass growth flux and the accretion sponginess. The model results suggest that spongy shedding and spongy nonshedding regimes are common under the high liquid flux conditions typical of freshwater ship icing. Moreover, the unfrozen liquid incorporated into the spongy ice matrix can substantially increase the ice accretion load over that which would be predicted purely thermodynamically. Despite differences in the experimental setup, the model's performance compares well with two independent freshwater experimental data sets for icing on horizontal rotating cylinders. The model performs well in its prediction of both accretion sponginess and growth rate. The model predicts sponginess with a variation in liquid mass fraction of about 0.2–0.5, over the range of air temperature of 0°C to −30°C, in agreement with observations.",
    keywords = "icing, icing models, ice",
    author = "R. Blackmore and Lasse Makkonen and Edward Lozowski",
    note = "Project code: R1SU00956",
    year = "2002",
    doi = "10.1029/2001JD001223",
    language = "English",
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    pages = "AAC 9--1--AAC 9--15",
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    }

    A new model of spongy icing from first principles. / Blackmore, R.; Makkonen, Lasse; Lozowski, Edward.

    In: Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, No. D21 , 2002, p. AAC 9-1-AAC 9-15.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A new model of spongy icing from first principles

    AU - Blackmore, R.

    AU - Makkonen, Lasse

    AU - Lozowski, Edward

    N1 - Project code: R1SU00956

    PY - 2002

    Y1 - 2002

    N2 - [1] A new icing model has been developed to predict the sponginess (liquid fraction) and growth rate of freshwater ice accretions growing under a surface film of unfrozen water.This model is developed from first principles and does not require experimental sponginess data to tune the model parameters. The model identifies icing conditions that include no accretion, dry accretion, glaze accretion, spongy nonshedding, and spongy shedding regimes. It is a steady state model for a stationary vertical cylinder intercepting horizontally directed spray. The model predicts both the accretion mass growth flux and the accretion sponginess. The model results suggest that spongy shedding and spongy nonshedding regimes are common under the high liquid flux conditions typical of freshwater ship icing. Moreover, the unfrozen liquid incorporated into the spongy ice matrix can substantially increase the ice accretion load over that which would be predicted purely thermodynamically. Despite differences in the experimental setup, the model's performance compares well with two independent freshwater experimental data sets for icing on horizontal rotating cylinders. The model performs well in its prediction of both accretion sponginess and growth rate. The model predicts sponginess with a variation in liquid mass fraction of about 0.2–0.5, over the range of air temperature of 0°C to −30°C, in agreement with observations.

    AB - [1] A new icing model has been developed to predict the sponginess (liquid fraction) and growth rate of freshwater ice accretions growing under a surface film of unfrozen water.This model is developed from first principles and does not require experimental sponginess data to tune the model parameters. The model identifies icing conditions that include no accretion, dry accretion, glaze accretion, spongy nonshedding, and spongy shedding regimes. It is a steady state model for a stationary vertical cylinder intercepting horizontally directed spray. The model predicts both the accretion mass growth flux and the accretion sponginess. The model results suggest that spongy shedding and spongy nonshedding regimes are common under the high liquid flux conditions typical of freshwater ship icing. Moreover, the unfrozen liquid incorporated into the spongy ice matrix can substantially increase the ice accretion load over that which would be predicted purely thermodynamically. Despite differences in the experimental setup, the model's performance compares well with two independent freshwater experimental data sets for icing on horizontal rotating cylinders. The model performs well in its prediction of both accretion sponginess and growth rate. The model predicts sponginess with a variation in liquid mass fraction of about 0.2–0.5, over the range of air temperature of 0°C to −30°C, in agreement with observations.

    KW - icing

    KW - icing models

    KW - ice

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    DO - 10.1029/2001JD001223

    M3 - Article

    VL - 107

    SP - AAC 9-1-AAC 9-15

    JO - Journal of Geophysical Research

    JF - Journal of Geophysical Research

    SN - 0148-0227

    IS - D21

    ER -