A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse

Anne Kallioinen (Corresponding Author), M. Hakola, T. Riekkola, T. Repo, M. Leskelä, N. Von Weymarn, Matti Siika-aho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120–140 °C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1–3 days.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)414-420
Number of pages6
JournalBioresource Technology
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • alkaline oxidation
  • enzymatic hydrolysis
  • ethanol
  • lignocellulose
  • pretreatment

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