A novel field measurement method for determining fine particle and gas emissions from residential wood combustion

Jarkko Tissari, Kati Hytönen, Jussi Lyyränen, Jorma Jokiniemi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

98 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Emission data from residential wood combustion are usually obtained on test stands in the laboratory but these measurements do not correspond to the operational conditions in the field because of the technological boundary conditions (e.g. testing protocol, environmental and draught conditions).
The field measurements take into account the habitual practice of the operators and provide the more reliable results needed for emission inventories. In this study, a workable and compact method for measuring emissions from residential wood combustion in winter conditions was developed.
The emissions for fine particle, gaseous and PAH compounds as well as particle composition in real operational conditions were measured from seven different appliances. The measurement technique worked well and was evidently suitable for winter conditions. It was easy and fast to use, and no construction scaffold was needed.
The dilution of the sample with the combination of a porous tube diluter and an ejector diluter was well suited to field measurement. The results indicate that the emissions of total volatile organic carbon (TVOC) (17 g kg−1 (of dry wood burned)), carbon monoxide (CO) (120 g kg−1) and fine particle mass (PM1) (2.7 g kg−1) from the sauna stove were higher than in the other measured appliances.
In the masonry heaters, baking oven and stove, the emissions were 2.9–9 g kg−1 TVOC, 28–68 g kg−1 CO and 0.6–1.6 g kg−1 PM1. The emission of 12 PAHs (PAH12) from the sauna stove was 164 mg kg−1 and consisted mainly of PAHs with four benzene rings in their structure. PAH12 emission from other appliances was, on average, 21 mg kg−1 and was dominated by 2-ring PAHs.
These results indicate that despite the non-optimal operational practices in the field, the emissions did not differ markedly from the laboratory measurements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8330-8344
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume41
Issue number37
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

measurement method
combustion
gas
PAH
carbon monoxide
organic carbon
masonry
winter
emission inventory
particle
benzene
dilution
boundary condition
stove

Keywords

  • emission
  • fine particles
  • field measurement method
  • residential combustion

Cite this

Tissari, Jarkko ; Hytönen, Kati ; Lyyränen, Jussi ; Jokiniemi, Jorma. / A novel field measurement method for determining fine particle and gas emissions from residential wood combustion. In: Atmospheric Environment. 2007 ; Vol. 41, No. 37. pp. 8330-8344.
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abstract = "Emission data from residential wood combustion are usually obtained on test stands in the laboratory but these measurements do not correspond to the operational conditions in the field because of the technological boundary conditions (e.g. testing protocol, environmental and draught conditions). The field measurements take into account the habitual practice of the operators and provide the more reliable results needed for emission inventories. In this study, a workable and compact method for measuring emissions from residential wood combustion in winter conditions was developed. The emissions for fine particle, gaseous and PAH compounds as well as particle composition in real operational conditions were measured from seven different appliances. The measurement technique worked well and was evidently suitable for winter conditions. It was easy and fast to use, and no construction scaffold was needed. The dilution of the sample with the combination of a porous tube diluter and an ejector diluter was well suited to field measurement. The results indicate that the emissions of total volatile organic carbon (TVOC) (17 g kg−1 (of dry wood burned)), carbon monoxide (CO) (120 g kg−1) and fine particle mass (PM1) (2.7 g kg−1) from the sauna stove were higher than in the other measured appliances. In the masonry heaters, baking oven and stove, the emissions were 2.9–9 g kg−1 TVOC, 28–68 g kg−1 CO and 0.6–1.6 g kg−1 PM1. The emission of 12 PAHs (PAH12) from the sauna stove was 164 mg kg−1 and consisted mainly of PAHs with four benzene rings in their structure. PAH12 emission from other appliances was, on average, 21 mg kg−1 and was dominated by 2-ring PAHs. These results indicate that despite the non-optimal operational practices in the field, the emissions did not differ markedly from the laboratory measurements.",
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A novel field measurement method for determining fine particle and gas emissions from residential wood combustion. / Tissari, Jarkko; Hytönen, Kati; Lyyränen, Jussi; Jokiniemi, Jorma.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, No. 37, 2007, p. 8330-8344.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A novel field measurement method for determining fine particle and gas emissions from residential wood combustion

AU - Tissari, Jarkko

AU - Hytönen, Kati

AU - Lyyränen, Jussi

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - Emission data from residential wood combustion are usually obtained on test stands in the laboratory but these measurements do not correspond to the operational conditions in the field because of the technological boundary conditions (e.g. testing protocol, environmental and draught conditions). The field measurements take into account the habitual practice of the operators and provide the more reliable results needed for emission inventories. In this study, a workable and compact method for measuring emissions from residential wood combustion in winter conditions was developed. The emissions for fine particle, gaseous and PAH compounds as well as particle composition in real operational conditions were measured from seven different appliances. The measurement technique worked well and was evidently suitable for winter conditions. It was easy and fast to use, and no construction scaffold was needed. The dilution of the sample with the combination of a porous tube diluter and an ejector diluter was well suited to field measurement. The results indicate that the emissions of total volatile organic carbon (TVOC) (17 g kg−1 (of dry wood burned)), carbon monoxide (CO) (120 g kg−1) and fine particle mass (PM1) (2.7 g kg−1) from the sauna stove were higher than in the other measured appliances. In the masonry heaters, baking oven and stove, the emissions were 2.9–9 g kg−1 TVOC, 28–68 g kg−1 CO and 0.6–1.6 g kg−1 PM1. The emission of 12 PAHs (PAH12) from the sauna stove was 164 mg kg−1 and consisted mainly of PAHs with four benzene rings in their structure. PAH12 emission from other appliances was, on average, 21 mg kg−1 and was dominated by 2-ring PAHs. These results indicate that despite the non-optimal operational practices in the field, the emissions did not differ markedly from the laboratory measurements.

AB - Emission data from residential wood combustion are usually obtained on test stands in the laboratory but these measurements do not correspond to the operational conditions in the field because of the technological boundary conditions (e.g. testing protocol, environmental and draught conditions). The field measurements take into account the habitual practice of the operators and provide the more reliable results needed for emission inventories. In this study, a workable and compact method for measuring emissions from residential wood combustion in winter conditions was developed. The emissions for fine particle, gaseous and PAH compounds as well as particle composition in real operational conditions were measured from seven different appliances. The measurement technique worked well and was evidently suitable for winter conditions. It was easy and fast to use, and no construction scaffold was needed. The dilution of the sample with the combination of a porous tube diluter and an ejector diluter was well suited to field measurement. The results indicate that the emissions of total volatile organic carbon (TVOC) (17 g kg−1 (of dry wood burned)), carbon monoxide (CO) (120 g kg−1) and fine particle mass (PM1) (2.7 g kg−1) from the sauna stove were higher than in the other measured appliances. In the masonry heaters, baking oven and stove, the emissions were 2.9–9 g kg−1 TVOC, 28–68 g kg−1 CO and 0.6–1.6 g kg−1 PM1. The emission of 12 PAHs (PAH12) from the sauna stove was 164 mg kg−1 and consisted mainly of PAHs with four benzene rings in their structure. PAH12 emission from other appliances was, on average, 21 mg kg−1 and was dominated by 2-ring PAHs. These results indicate that despite the non-optimal operational practices in the field, the emissions did not differ markedly from the laboratory measurements.

KW - emission

KW - fine particles

KW - field measurement method

KW - residential combustion

U2 - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.018

DO - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.018

M3 - Article

VL - 41

SP - 8330

EP - 8344

JO - Atmospheric Environment

JF - Atmospheric Environment

SN - 1352-2310

IS - 37

ER -