A novel gas phase method for the combined synthesis and coating of pharmaceutical particles

Janne Raula, Anna Lähde, Esko I. Kauppinen (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)



A novel aerosol flow reactor method for the combined gas phase synthesis and coating of particles for drug delivery has been developed.

Materials and Methods

As an example, micron-sized salbutamol sulfate particles were produced via droplet-to-particle conversion and in-situ coated by the physical vapor deposition (PVD) of l-leucine vapor.


During the deposition, l-leucine vapor crystallized on the surfaces of amorphous salbutamol particles. The size of l-leucine crystallites increased with increasing vapor concentration of l-leucine. The salbutamol particles with rough l-leucine surfaces exhibited good flowability enabling to them to be dispersed into air flow without the delivery aid of coarse lactose carriers.


The fraction of particles smaller than 5 micrometers varied between 0.35 and 0.48 when dispersed into 60 l/min air flow having a jet Reynolds number of 30700. When the coated fine particles were blended with lactose carriers, the fine particle fraction was as high as 90%. The l-leucine coating also improved the stability of salbutamol particles when stored at 45% relative humidity atmosphere.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)242-245
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • aerosol
  • coating
  • evaporation
  • gas phase deposition
  • inhalation
  • L-leucine
  • pharmaceutical
  • powder production
  • salbutamol sulfate
  • surface modification
  • vapor


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