A novel particle sampling system for physico-chemical and toxicological characterization of emissions

Jarno Ruusunen (Corresponding Author), Maija Tapanainen, Olli Sippula, Pasi I. Jalava, Heikki Lamberg, Kati Nuutinen, Jarkko Tissari, Mika Ihalainen, Kari Kuuspalo, Jorma Mäki-Paakkanen, Pasi Hakulinen, Arto Pennanen, Kimmo Teinilä, Ulla Makkonen, Raimo O. Salonen, Risto Hillamo, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Jorma Jokiniemi

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Abstract

Several studies have shown that combustion-derived fine particles cause adverse health effects. Previous toxicological studies on combustion-derived fine particles have rarely involved multiple endpoints and a detailed characterization of chemical composition. In this study, we developed a novel particle sampling system for toxicological and chemical characterization (PSTC), consisting of the Dekati Gravimetric Impactor (DGI) and a porous tube diluter. Physico-chemical and toxicological properties of the particles emitted from various combustion sources were evaluated in two measurement campaigns. First, the DGI was compared with the High-Volume Cascade Impactor (HVCI) and to the Dekati Low-Pressure Impactor (DLPI), using the same dilution system and the same sampling conditions. Only small differences were observed in the mass size distributions, total particulate matter (PM), and particulate matter with diameter smaller than 1 um (PM1) concentrations and geometric mass mean diameters (GMMD) between these three impactors. Second, the PSTC was compared with the HVCI sampling system, which has been optimal for collection of particulate samples for toxicological and chemical analyses. Differences were observed in the mass size distributions, total PM and PM1 emissions, and GMMDs, probably due to the different sampling and dilution methods as well as different sampling substrates which affected the behavior of semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds. However, no significant differences were detected in the in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity between the samples collected with the PSTC and the HVCI systems. In measurements of genotoxicity, significant differences between the two sampling systems were seen only with the particles emitted from the sauna stove. In conclusion, due to compact size, PSTC is an applicable method for use in particle sampling as part of the toxicological and chemical characterization of particulate emissions from different combustion sources. It offers some advantages compared to the previously used high-volume sampling methods including compactness for field measurements, simple preparation of sample substrates and high extraction efficiency.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3183-3195
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume401
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Toxicology
Particulate Matter
Sampling
Steam Bath
Volatile Organic Compounds
Dilution
Stoves
Particulate emissions
Substrates
Cytotoxicity
Pressure
Health
Chemical analysis

Keywords

  • Aerosols/particulates
  • samplilng
  • physicochemical
  • toxicological
  • emission

Cite this

Ruusunen, J., Tapanainen, M., Sippula, O., Jalava, P. I., Lamberg, H., Nuutinen, K., ... Jokiniemi, J. (2011). A novel particle sampling system for physico-chemical and toxicological characterization of emissions. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 401(10), 3183-3195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5424-2
Ruusunen, Jarno ; Tapanainen, Maija ; Sippula, Olli ; Jalava, Pasi I. ; Lamberg, Heikki ; Nuutinen, Kati ; Tissari, Jarkko ; Ihalainen, Mika ; Kuuspalo, Kari ; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma ; Hakulinen, Pasi ; Pennanen, Arto ; Teinilä, Kimmo ; Makkonen, Ulla ; Salonen, Raimo O. ; Hillamo, Risto ; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta ; Jokiniemi, Jorma. / A novel particle sampling system for physico-chemical and toxicological characterization of emissions. In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2011 ; Vol. 401, No. 10. pp. 3183-3195.
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abstract = "Several studies have shown that combustion-derived fine particles cause adverse health effects. Previous toxicological studies on combustion-derived fine particles have rarely involved multiple endpoints and a detailed characterization of chemical composition. In this study, we developed a novel particle sampling system for toxicological and chemical characterization (PSTC), consisting of the Dekati Gravimetric Impactor (DGI) and a porous tube diluter. Physico-chemical and toxicological properties of the particles emitted from various combustion sources were evaluated in two measurement campaigns. First, the DGI was compared with the High-Volume Cascade Impactor (HVCI) and to the Dekati Low-Pressure Impactor (DLPI), using the same dilution system and the same sampling conditions. Only small differences were observed in the mass size distributions, total particulate matter (PM), and particulate matter with diameter smaller than 1 um (PM1) concentrations and geometric mass mean diameters (GMMD) between these three impactors. Second, the PSTC was compared with the HVCI sampling system, which has been optimal for collection of particulate samples for toxicological and chemical analyses. Differences were observed in the mass size distributions, total PM and PM1 emissions, and GMMDs, probably due to the different sampling and dilution methods as well as different sampling substrates which affected the behavior of semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds. However, no significant differences were detected in the in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity between the samples collected with the PSTC and the HVCI systems. In measurements of genotoxicity, significant differences between the two sampling systems were seen only with the particles emitted from the sauna stove. In conclusion, due to compact size, PSTC is an applicable method for use in particle sampling as part of the toxicological and chemical characterization of particulate emissions from different combustion sources. It offers some advantages compared to the previously used high-volume sampling methods including compactness for field measurements, simple preparation of sample substrates and high extraction efficiency.",
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Ruusunen, J, Tapanainen, M, Sippula, O, Jalava, PI, Lamberg, H, Nuutinen, K, Tissari, J, Ihalainen, M, Kuuspalo, K, Mäki-Paakkanen, J, Hakulinen, P, Pennanen, A, Teinilä, K, Makkonen, U, Salonen, RO, Hillamo, R, Hirvonen, M-R & Jokiniemi, J 2011, 'A novel particle sampling system for physico-chemical and toxicological characterization of emissions', Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 401, no. 10, pp. 3183-3195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5424-2

A novel particle sampling system for physico-chemical and toxicological characterization of emissions. / Ruusunen, Jarno (Corresponding Author); Tapanainen, Maija; Sippula, Olli; Jalava, Pasi I.; Lamberg, Heikki; Nuutinen, Kati; Tissari, Jarkko; Ihalainen, Mika; Kuuspalo, Kari; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hakulinen, Pasi; Pennanen, Arto; Teinilä, Kimmo; Makkonen, Ulla; Salonen, Raimo O.; Hillamo, Risto; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Jokiniemi, Jorma.

In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 401, No. 10, 2011, p. 3183-3195.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A novel particle sampling system for physico-chemical and toxicological characterization of emissions

AU - Ruusunen, Jarno

AU - Tapanainen, Maija

AU - Sippula, Olli

AU - Jalava, Pasi I.

AU - Lamberg, Heikki

AU - Nuutinen, Kati

AU - Tissari, Jarkko

AU - Ihalainen, Mika

AU - Kuuspalo, Kari

AU - Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma

AU - Hakulinen, Pasi

AU - Pennanen, Arto

AU - Teinilä, Kimmo

AU - Makkonen, Ulla

AU - Salonen, Raimo O.

AU - Hillamo, Risto

AU - Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Several studies have shown that combustion-derived fine particles cause adverse health effects. Previous toxicological studies on combustion-derived fine particles have rarely involved multiple endpoints and a detailed characterization of chemical composition. In this study, we developed a novel particle sampling system for toxicological and chemical characterization (PSTC), consisting of the Dekati Gravimetric Impactor (DGI) and a porous tube diluter. Physico-chemical and toxicological properties of the particles emitted from various combustion sources were evaluated in two measurement campaigns. First, the DGI was compared with the High-Volume Cascade Impactor (HVCI) and to the Dekati Low-Pressure Impactor (DLPI), using the same dilution system and the same sampling conditions. Only small differences were observed in the mass size distributions, total particulate matter (PM), and particulate matter with diameter smaller than 1 um (PM1) concentrations and geometric mass mean diameters (GMMD) between these three impactors. Second, the PSTC was compared with the HVCI sampling system, which has been optimal for collection of particulate samples for toxicological and chemical analyses. Differences were observed in the mass size distributions, total PM and PM1 emissions, and GMMDs, probably due to the different sampling and dilution methods as well as different sampling substrates which affected the behavior of semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds. However, no significant differences were detected in the in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity between the samples collected with the PSTC and the HVCI systems. In measurements of genotoxicity, significant differences between the two sampling systems were seen only with the particles emitted from the sauna stove. In conclusion, due to compact size, PSTC is an applicable method for use in particle sampling as part of the toxicological and chemical characterization of particulate emissions from different combustion sources. It offers some advantages compared to the previously used high-volume sampling methods including compactness for field measurements, simple preparation of sample substrates and high extraction efficiency.

AB - Several studies have shown that combustion-derived fine particles cause adverse health effects. Previous toxicological studies on combustion-derived fine particles have rarely involved multiple endpoints and a detailed characterization of chemical composition. In this study, we developed a novel particle sampling system for toxicological and chemical characterization (PSTC), consisting of the Dekati Gravimetric Impactor (DGI) and a porous tube diluter. Physico-chemical and toxicological properties of the particles emitted from various combustion sources were evaluated in two measurement campaigns. First, the DGI was compared with the High-Volume Cascade Impactor (HVCI) and to the Dekati Low-Pressure Impactor (DLPI), using the same dilution system and the same sampling conditions. Only small differences were observed in the mass size distributions, total particulate matter (PM), and particulate matter with diameter smaller than 1 um (PM1) concentrations and geometric mass mean diameters (GMMD) between these three impactors. Second, the PSTC was compared with the HVCI sampling system, which has been optimal for collection of particulate samples for toxicological and chemical analyses. Differences were observed in the mass size distributions, total PM and PM1 emissions, and GMMDs, probably due to the different sampling and dilution methods as well as different sampling substrates which affected the behavior of semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds. However, no significant differences were detected in the in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity between the samples collected with the PSTC and the HVCI systems. In measurements of genotoxicity, significant differences between the two sampling systems were seen only with the particles emitted from the sauna stove. In conclusion, due to compact size, PSTC is an applicable method for use in particle sampling as part of the toxicological and chemical characterization of particulate emissions from different combustion sources. It offers some advantages compared to the previously used high-volume sampling methods including compactness for field measurements, simple preparation of sample substrates and high extraction efficiency.

KW - Aerosols/particulates

KW - samplilng

KW - physicochemical

KW - toxicological

KW - emission

U2 - 10.1007/s00216-011-5424-2

DO - 10.1007/s00216-011-5424-2

M3 - Article

VL - 401

SP - 3183

EP - 3195

JO - Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

JF - Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

SN - 1618-2642

IS - 10

ER -