A one step approach to B-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes

P. Ayala (Corresponding Author), W. Plank, A. Grüneis, Esko I. Kauppinen, M. H. Rümmeli, H. Kuzmany, T. Pichler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Tailoring the electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical modification through incorporation of heteroatoms within the tube walls represents a key method for the applicability of these structures in semiconductor technology. For p-type doping experimental studies on the synthesis of B doped single-walled carbon nanotubes have been reported using substitution reactions, arc discharge and laser ablation. However, synthesis using the up-scalability of the widely used chemical vapor deposition approach has not been successful so far. In this work, we present an enhanced CVD approach using high vacuum and promoting the use of solely one liquid precursor containing B and C to synthesize B-doped single walled nanotubes with unique characteristics on the subject of controlled “low doping”. In comparison to non-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes, these tubes have exceptional stability. From Raman and TEM we observe a very low defect concentration concomitant with small nanotube bundles containing 3 to 5 tubes with a narrow diameter distribution (0.9 to 1.5 nm). The defect concentration is significantly lower than in pure carbon nanotube reference samples. The overall B content and the bonding environment of the incorporated B were probed in detail for the first time by XPS. We identified different B bonding environments at less than 1 at%. This highlights the applicability of a rigid band model improving the accessibility of these tubes with controlled p-type doping in nano- and optoelectronic devices.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5676-5681
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry
Volume18
Issue number46
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCN)
Doping (additives)
Nanotubes
Chemical vapor deposition
Defects
Carbon Nanotubes
Chemical modification
Laser ablation
Electronic properties
Optoelectronic devices
Scalability
Carbon nanotubes
Substitution reactions
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Vacuum
Semiconductor materials
Transmission electron microscopy
Liquids

Cite this

Ayala, P., Plank, W., Grüneis, A., Kauppinen, E. I., Rümmeli, M. H., Kuzmany, H., & Pichler, T. (2008). A one step approach to B-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 18(46), 5676-5681. https://doi.org/10.1039/b809050e
Ayala, P. ; Plank, W. ; Grüneis, A. ; Kauppinen, Esko I. ; Rümmeli, M. H. ; Kuzmany, H. ; Pichler, T. / A one step approach to B-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes. In: Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2008 ; Vol. 18, No. 46. pp. 5676-5681.
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abstract = "Tailoring the electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical modification through incorporation of heteroatoms within the tube walls represents a key method for the applicability of these structures in semiconductor technology. For p-type doping experimental studies on the synthesis of B doped single-walled carbon nanotubes have been reported using substitution reactions, arc discharge and laser ablation. However, synthesis using the up-scalability of the widely used chemical vapor deposition approach has not been successful so far. In this work, we present an enhanced CVD approach using high vacuum and promoting the use of solely one liquid precursor containing B and C to synthesize B-doped single walled nanotubes with unique characteristics on the subject of controlled “low doping”. In comparison to non-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes, these tubes have exceptional stability. From Raman and TEM we observe a very low defect concentration concomitant with small nanotube bundles containing 3 to 5 tubes with a narrow diameter distribution (0.9 to 1.5 nm). The defect concentration is significantly lower than in pure carbon nanotube reference samples. The overall B content and the bonding environment of the incorporated B were probed in detail for the first time by XPS. We identified different B bonding environments at less than 1 at{\%}. This highlights the applicability of a rigid band model improving the accessibility of these tubes with controlled p-type doping in nano- and optoelectronic devices.",
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Ayala, P, Plank, W, Grüneis, A, Kauppinen, EI, Rümmeli, MH, Kuzmany, H & Pichler, T 2008, 'A one step approach to B-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes', Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 46, pp. 5676-5681. https://doi.org/10.1039/b809050e

A one step approach to B-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes. / Ayala, P. (Corresponding Author); Plank, W.; Grüneis, A.; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Rümmeli, M. H.; Kuzmany, H.; Pichler, T.

In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 18, No. 46, 2008, p. 5676-5681.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Ayala P, Plank W, Grüneis A, Kauppinen EI, Rümmeli MH, Kuzmany H et al. A one step approach to B-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2008;18(46):5676-5681. https://doi.org/10.1039/b809050e