A paper-based lateral flow assay for morphine

Tuija Teerinen (Corresponding Author), Timo Lappalainen, Tomi Erho

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    43 Citations (Scopus)


    Morphine was used as a model analyte to examine the possibility of using cellulose, physically modified by papermaking and converting techniques, as a capillary matrix in a lateral flow type of diagnostic assay. This research was directed toward low-cost, disposable, and portable paperbased diagnostics, with the aim of addressing the analytical performance of paper as a substrate in the analysis for drugs of abuse. Antibody Fab fragments were used as sensing molecules, and gold nanoparticle detection was employed. Inkjet printing was used to pattern sensing biomolecules as detection zones on paper. To validate the usefulness of paper as a diagnostic platform, the principle of a direct sandwich assay, based on immunocomplex formation between morphine and the anti-morphine Fab fragment and detection of the formed immunocomplex by another Fab fragment, was implemented. Results were compared with that achieved by using nitrocellulose as a reference material. Possible interfering from the sample matrix on assay quality was investigated with spiked oral fluid samples. Under optimized conditions, a visually assessed limit of detection for the sandwich assay was 1 ng/mL, indicating that the paper-based test devices developed in this work can perform screening for drugs of abuse and can fulfill the requirement for a sensitive assay in diagnostically relevant ranges
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)5955-5965
    JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
    Issue number24
    Publication statusPublished - 2014
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • paper-based
    • drugs of abuse
    • recombinant antibody
    • immunocomplex assay
    • point-of-care diagnostics
    • low resources
    • capillary actions
    • cellulose


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