A reference system for measuring high-DC voltage based on voltage references

Ahmet Merev, Jari K. Hällström

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this paper, a 20-kV voltage reference based on shunt type bandgap references has been built and characterized. Compared with earlier designs based on temperature compensated Zener diodes, the main advantages of the new design are much lower uncertainty and dynamic impedance, combined with lower cost. The temperature coefficient of shunt references has been compensated using selected traditional Zener diodes. A commercial four quadrant current source has been used for the stabilization of the leakage current. The measurement system has stable output over a wide range of operating current and ambient temperature, and it is insensitive to effects due to leakage currents. The reference has a maximum voltage of 20 kV, and it is expandable to higher voltages. The estimated measurement uncertainty of the system is less than 5 μV/V.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6877715
Pages (from-to)184-189
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Calibration
  • high-voltage dividers
  • high-voltage techniques
  • measurement standards
  • uncertainty
  • voltage measurement

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