A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials

Kaisa S. Poutanen, Pierre Dussort, Alfrun Erkner, Susana Fiszman, Kavita Karnik, Mette Kristensen, Cyril F.M. Marsaux, Sophie Miquel-Kergoat, Saara P. Pentikäinen, Peter Putz, Joanne L. Slavin, Robert E. Steinert, David J. Mela

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1) DF name and origin and 2) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetiterelated outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for characterization and reporting of DF sources and DF-containing materials are strongly recommended for future studies on the effects of DF on human physiology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)747-754
Number of pages8
JournalThe American journal of clinical nutrition
Volume106
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal

Fingerprint

Dietary Fiber
Appetite
Energy Intake
Viscosity
Molecular Weight
Gels
Food and Beverages
Dietary Supplements

Keywords

  • Appetite regulation
  • Dietary fiber properties
  • Fermentability
  • Gelling
  • Molecular weight
  • Viscosity
  • Weight management
  • Energy Intake/drug effects
  • Molecular Weight
  • Gels
  • Dietary Fiber/analysis
  • Humans
  • Fermentation
  • Diet
  • Appetite/drug effects
  • Dietary Supplements

Cite this

Poutanen, Kaisa S. ; Dussort, Pierre ; Erkner, Alfrun ; Fiszman, Susana ; Karnik, Kavita ; Kristensen, Mette ; Marsaux, Cyril F.M. ; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie ; Pentikäinen, Saara P. ; Putz, Peter ; Slavin, Joanne L. ; Steinert, Robert E. ; Mela, David J. / A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials. In: The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2017 ; Vol. 106, No. 3. pp. 747-754.
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title = "A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials",
abstract = "Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1) DF name and origin and 2) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetiterelated outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for characterization and reporting of DF sources and DF-containing materials are strongly recommended for future studies on the effects of DF on human physiology.",
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author = "Poutanen, {Kaisa S.} and Pierre Dussort and Alfrun Erkner and Susana Fiszman and Kavita Karnik and Mette Kristensen and Marsaux, {Cyril F.M.} and Sophie Miquel-Kergoat and Pentik{\"a}inen, {Saara P.} and Peter Putz and Slavin, {Joanne L.} and Steinert, {Robert E.} and Mela, {David J.}",
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Poutanen, KS, Dussort, P, Erkner, A, Fiszman, S, Karnik, K, Kristensen, M, Marsaux, CFM, Miquel-Kergoat, S, Pentikäinen, SP, Putz, P, Slavin, JL, Steinert, RE & Mela, DJ 2017, 'A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials', The American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 747-754. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.117.157172

A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials. / Poutanen, Kaisa S.; Dussort, Pierre; Erkner, Alfrun; Fiszman, Susana; Karnik, Kavita; Kristensen, Mette; Marsaux, Cyril F.M.; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie; Pentikäinen, Saara P.; Putz, Peter; Slavin, Joanne L.; Steinert, Robert E.; Mela, David J.

In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, Vol. 106, No. 3, 01.09.2017, p. 747-754.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials

AU - Poutanen, Kaisa S.

AU - Dussort, Pierre

AU - Erkner, Alfrun

AU - Fiszman, Susana

AU - Karnik, Kavita

AU - Kristensen, Mette

AU - Marsaux, Cyril F.M.

AU - Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie

AU - Pentikäinen, Saara P.

AU - Putz, Peter

AU - Slavin, Joanne L.

AU - Steinert, Robert E.

AU - Mela, David J.

N1 - CA2: BA34 CA2: BA3408 AU2: Poutanen, Kaisa S. AU2: Pentikäinen, Saara P.

PY - 2017/9/1

Y1 - 2017/9/1

N2 - Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1) DF name and origin and 2) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetiterelated outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for characterization and reporting of DF sources and DF-containing materials are strongly recommended for future studies on the effects of DF on human physiology.

AB - Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1) DF name and origin and 2) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetiterelated outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for characterization and reporting of DF sources and DF-containing materials are strongly recommended for future studies on the effects of DF on human physiology.

KW - Appetite regulation

KW - Dietary fiber properties

KW - Fermentability

KW - Gelling

KW - Molecular weight

KW - Viscosity

KW - Weight management

KW - Energy Intake/drug effects

KW - Molecular Weight

KW - Gels

KW - Dietary Fiber/analysis

KW - Humans

KW - Fermentation

KW - Diet

KW - Appetite/drug effects

KW - Dietary Supplements

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.117.157172

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.117.157172

M3 - Review Article

C2 - 28724643

AN - SCOPUS:85028722976

VL - 106

SP - 747

EP - 754

JO - The American journal of clinical nutrition

JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 3

ER -