The production and consumption of textiles is continuously increasing due to the growth of population and fast fashion. Fiber fragments (1 µm–5 mm) released from garments and home textiles during washing, drying, and wearing are considered a new source of environmental pollution and health hazard. Fiber fragments can be ingested by aquatic animals and substantially threaten their metabolic activities. Small fiber fragments can also enter our food chain by the consumption of sea creatures, sea table salt, and drinking water. In this paper, we overview various important parameters on the release of fiber fragments from garments, and home textiles including the type of fabric, weaving/knitting structure, detergent type and concentration, temperature, pH, spin-speed, and duration of the washing and drying processes. The influence of various mechanical and chemical textile finishes on the release of fiber fragments is explained. Any process that reduces the strength of fibers and their interactions including sanding, brushing, bleaching can potentially increase the release of fiber fragments in consecutive wet processes. We highlight some of the most important environmental regulations on the release of microplastics and fiber fragments to the environment and provide a series of recommendations to reduce the impact.
|Journal||Polymer Degradation and Stability|
|Publication status||Published - May 2022|
|MoE publication type||A2 Review article in a scientific journal|
- Chemical finishing
- Domestic washing
- Environmental pollution
- Reduction techniques for microplastics