This article describes a semi-automatic end-user programming approach that: (i) assists in the creation of easy-to-apply Semantic End-User Application Programming Interfaces(S-APIs) for the APIs of legacy software components; and (ii) enables the usage of S-APIs in command-oriented and goal-oriented end-user application programming. Furthermore, a reference implementation is presented for the approach that provides visual programming tools and an agent-based execution environment for smart space applications. The use of the approach is exemplified and tested in a case study in which S-APIs are created for a home automation system and for a personal assistant application, and then utilized in end-user programming performed in desktop and mobile environments.
- command-oriented end-user programming
- goal-oriented end-user programming
- smart modeler
- smart space application