A simple process for lignin nanoparticle preparation

Miikka Lievonen, Juan José Valle-Delgado (Corresponding Author), Maija-Liisa Mattinen, Eva-Lena Hult, Kalle Lintinen, Mauri A. Kostiainen, Arja Paananen, Géza R. Szilvay, Harri Setälä, Monika Österberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

120 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A lack of renewable resources and their inefficient use is a major challenge facing the society. Lignin is a natural biopolymer obtained mainly as a by-product from the pulp- and paper-making industries, and is primarily burned to produce energy. However, interest for using lignin in more advanced applications has increased rapidly. In particular, lignin based nanoparticles could find potential use in functional surface coatings, nanoglue, drug delivery, and microfluidic devices. In this work, a straightforward method to produce lignin nanoparticles from waste lignin obtained from kraft pulping is introduced. Spherical lignin nanoparticles were obtained by dissolving softwood kraft lignin in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and subsequently introducing water into the system through dialysis. No chemical modification of lignin was needed. Water acts as a non-solvent reducing lignin's degrees of freedom causing the segregation of hydrophobic regions to compartments within the forming nanoparticles. The final size of the nanoparticles depended on the pre-dialysis concentration of dissolved lignin. The stability of the nanoparticle dispersion as a function of time, salt concentration and pH was studied. In pure water and at room temperature the lignin nanoparticle dispersion was stable for over two months, but a very low pH or high salt concentration induced aggregation. It was further demonstrated that the surface charge of the particles could be reversed and stable cationic lignin nanoparticles were produced by adsorption of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1416-1422
JournalGreen Chemistry
Volume18
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Lignin
lignin
Nanoparticles
Dialysis
Water
Salts
nanoparticle
Kraft process
Biopolymers
Softwoods
salt
Chemical modification
Surface charge
Drug delivery
Microfluidics
renewable resource
Pulp
Byproducts
water
Agglomeration

Cite this

Lievonen, M., Valle-Delgado, J. J., Mattinen, M-L., Hult, E-L., Lintinen, K., Kostiainen, M. A., ... Österberg, M. (2016). A simple process for lignin nanoparticle preparation. Green Chemistry, 18(5), 1416-1422. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5gc01436k
Lievonen, Miikka ; Valle-Delgado, Juan José ; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa ; Hult, Eva-Lena ; Lintinen, Kalle ; Kostiainen, Mauri A. ; Paananen, Arja ; Szilvay, Géza R. ; Setälä, Harri ; Österberg, Monika. / A simple process for lignin nanoparticle preparation. In: Green Chemistry. 2016 ; Vol. 18, No. 5. pp. 1416-1422.
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abstract = "A lack of renewable resources and their inefficient use is a major challenge facing the society. Lignin is a natural biopolymer obtained mainly as a by-product from the pulp- and paper-making industries, and is primarily burned to produce energy. However, interest for using lignin in more advanced applications has increased rapidly. In particular, lignin based nanoparticles could find potential use in functional surface coatings, nanoglue, drug delivery, and microfluidic devices. In this work, a straightforward method to produce lignin nanoparticles from waste lignin obtained from kraft pulping is introduced. Spherical lignin nanoparticles were obtained by dissolving softwood kraft lignin in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and subsequently introducing water into the system through dialysis. No chemical modification of lignin was needed. Water acts as a non-solvent reducing lignin's degrees of freedom causing the segregation of hydrophobic regions to compartments within the forming nanoparticles. The final size of the nanoparticles depended on the pre-dialysis concentration of dissolved lignin. The stability of the nanoparticle dispersion as a function of time, salt concentration and pH was studied. In pure water and at room temperature the lignin nanoparticle dispersion was stable for over two months, but a very low pH or high salt concentration induced aggregation. It was further demonstrated that the surface charge of the particles could be reversed and stable cationic lignin nanoparticles were produced by adsorption of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC).",
author = "Miikka Lievonen and Valle-Delgado, {Juan Jos{\'e}} and Maija-Liisa Mattinen and Eva-Lena Hult and Kalle Lintinen and Kostiainen, {Mauri A.} and Arja Paananen and Szilvay, {G{\'e}za R.} and Harri Set{\"a}l{\"a} and Monika {\"O}sterberg",
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Lievonen, M, Valle-Delgado, JJ, Mattinen, M-L, Hult, E-L, Lintinen, K, Kostiainen, MA, Paananen, A, Szilvay, GR, Setälä, H & Österberg, M 2016, 'A simple process for lignin nanoparticle preparation', Green Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1416-1422. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5gc01436k

A simple process for lignin nanoparticle preparation. / Lievonen, Miikka; Valle-Delgado, Juan José (Corresponding Author); Mattinen, Maija-Liisa; Hult, Eva-Lena; Lintinen, Kalle; Kostiainen, Mauri A.; Paananen, Arja; Szilvay, Géza R.; Setälä, Harri; Österberg, Monika.

In: Green Chemistry, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2016, p. 1416-1422.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A simple process for lignin nanoparticle preparation

AU - Lievonen, Miikka

AU - Valle-Delgado, Juan José

AU - Mattinen, Maija-Liisa

AU - Hult, Eva-Lena

AU - Lintinen, Kalle

AU - Kostiainen, Mauri A.

AU - Paananen, Arja

AU - Szilvay, Géza R.

AU - Setälä, Harri

AU - Österberg, Monika

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - A lack of renewable resources and their inefficient use is a major challenge facing the society. Lignin is a natural biopolymer obtained mainly as a by-product from the pulp- and paper-making industries, and is primarily burned to produce energy. However, interest for using lignin in more advanced applications has increased rapidly. In particular, lignin based nanoparticles could find potential use in functional surface coatings, nanoglue, drug delivery, and microfluidic devices. In this work, a straightforward method to produce lignin nanoparticles from waste lignin obtained from kraft pulping is introduced. Spherical lignin nanoparticles were obtained by dissolving softwood kraft lignin in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and subsequently introducing water into the system through dialysis. No chemical modification of lignin was needed. Water acts as a non-solvent reducing lignin's degrees of freedom causing the segregation of hydrophobic regions to compartments within the forming nanoparticles. The final size of the nanoparticles depended on the pre-dialysis concentration of dissolved lignin. The stability of the nanoparticle dispersion as a function of time, salt concentration and pH was studied. In pure water and at room temperature the lignin nanoparticle dispersion was stable for over two months, but a very low pH or high salt concentration induced aggregation. It was further demonstrated that the surface charge of the particles could be reversed and stable cationic lignin nanoparticles were produced by adsorption of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC).

AB - A lack of renewable resources and their inefficient use is a major challenge facing the society. Lignin is a natural biopolymer obtained mainly as a by-product from the pulp- and paper-making industries, and is primarily burned to produce energy. However, interest for using lignin in more advanced applications has increased rapidly. In particular, lignin based nanoparticles could find potential use in functional surface coatings, nanoglue, drug delivery, and microfluidic devices. In this work, a straightforward method to produce lignin nanoparticles from waste lignin obtained from kraft pulping is introduced. Spherical lignin nanoparticles were obtained by dissolving softwood kraft lignin in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and subsequently introducing water into the system through dialysis. No chemical modification of lignin was needed. Water acts as a non-solvent reducing lignin's degrees of freedom causing the segregation of hydrophobic regions to compartments within the forming nanoparticles. The final size of the nanoparticles depended on the pre-dialysis concentration of dissolved lignin. The stability of the nanoparticle dispersion as a function of time, salt concentration and pH was studied. In pure water and at room temperature the lignin nanoparticle dispersion was stable for over two months, but a very low pH or high salt concentration induced aggregation. It was further demonstrated that the surface charge of the particles could be reversed and stable cationic lignin nanoparticles were produced by adsorption of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC).

U2 - 10.1039/c5gc01436k

DO - 10.1039/c5gc01436k

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - 1416

EP - 1422

JO - Green Chemistry

JF - Green Chemistry

SN - 1463-9262

IS - 5

ER -

Lievonen M, Valle-Delgado JJ, Mattinen M-L, Hult E-L, Lintinen K, Kostiainen MA et al. A simple process for lignin nanoparticle preparation. Green Chemistry. 2016;18(5):1416-1422. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5gc01436k