A simple and general standard-addition method for a single-component determination is presented. The method uses two independent variables for the calculation of the analyte concentration (the amount of sample taken and the amount of analyte added) and one dependent variable, the response. The sensitivity and the response of the blank can also be estimated from the model by changing the amount of the sample and the amount of the analyte addition. In the simples case, a linear equation is assumed to exist between the variables. Geometrically, the model can be expressed by the response plane in the variable-space. The method has all the advantages of the ordinary standard-addition method but also includes automatic blank elimination and versatile matrix-interference control. Two examples of the use of the method are based on graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry of chromium and lead. Standard statistical packages are applied.
Piepponen, S., Alanko, T., & Minkkinen, P. (1986). A simplified approach to the generalized standard-addition method and its application in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 191(C), 495-504. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(00)86338-2