A tool for determining sheltering efficiency of mechanically ventilated buildings against outdoor hazardous agents

Ilpo Kulmala (Corresponding Author), Hannu Salmela, Tapio Kalliohaka, Tomasz Zweglinski, Marcin Smolarkiewicz, Aimo Taipale, Jari Kataja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sudden large scale outdoor releases of toxic materials may require protective actions in the affected areas, and one option is to shelter indoors. Mechanically ventilated buildings provide protection against outdoor hazardous particulate materials with varying efficiency depending mainly on the properties of the HVAC system of the building, air leakage, and the nature of the outdoor release. A tool for modelling the indoor concentrations due to outdoor contaminants has been developed and presented. The tool solves numerically the simplified mass balance equation describing the size-resolved behaviour of airborne particles and uses as input experimentally obtained data on particle concentrations outdoors, in the supply air, and indoors. By eliminating the effect of indoor sources the size-resolved indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio for fine particles can be determined accurately, thus giving detailed information on the buildings protective capability and thereby quantitative knowledge to support emergency managers decision making.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-253
JournalBuilding and Environment
Volume106
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

building
air
Toxic materials
hazardous material
efficiency
Leakage (fluid)
Air
toxic material
Managers
Decision making
Impurities
manager
supply
decision making
shelter
leakage
mass balance
pollutant
modeling
particle

Keywords

  • sheltering efficiency
  • I/O ratio
  • infiltration
  • modelling
  • validation

Cite this

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title = "A tool for determining sheltering efficiency of mechanically ventilated buildings against outdoor hazardous agents",
abstract = "Sudden large scale outdoor releases of toxic materials may require protective actions in the affected areas, and one option is to shelter indoors. Mechanically ventilated buildings provide protection against outdoor hazardous particulate materials with varying efficiency depending mainly on the properties of the HVAC system of the building, air leakage, and the nature of the outdoor release. A tool for modelling the indoor concentrations due to outdoor contaminants has been developed and presented. The tool solves numerically the simplified mass balance equation describing the size-resolved behaviour of airborne particles and uses as input experimentally obtained data on particle concentrations outdoors, in the supply air, and indoors. By eliminating the effect of indoor sources the size-resolved indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio for fine particles can be determined accurately, thus giving detailed information on the buildings protective capability and thereby quantitative knowledge to support emergency managers decision making.",
keywords = "sheltering efficiency, I/O ratio, infiltration, modelling, validation",
author = "Ilpo Kulmala and Hannu Salmela and Tapio Kalliohaka and Tomasz Zweglinski and Marcin Smolarkiewicz and Aimo Taipale and Jari Kataja",
note = "Project code: 100524",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.06.034",
language = "English",
volume = "106",
pages = "245--253",
journal = "Building and Environment",
issn = "0360-1323",
publisher = "Elsevier",

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A tool for determining sheltering efficiency of mechanically ventilated buildings against outdoor hazardous agents. / Kulmala, Ilpo (Corresponding Author); Salmela, Hannu; Kalliohaka, Tapio; Zweglinski, Tomasz; Smolarkiewicz, Marcin; Taipale, Aimo; Kataja, Jari.

In: Building and Environment, Vol. 106, 2016, p. 245-253.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A tool for determining sheltering efficiency of mechanically ventilated buildings against outdoor hazardous agents

AU - Kulmala, Ilpo

AU - Salmela, Hannu

AU - Kalliohaka, Tapio

AU - Zweglinski, Tomasz

AU - Smolarkiewicz, Marcin

AU - Taipale, Aimo

AU - Kataja, Jari

N1 - Project code: 100524

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Sudden large scale outdoor releases of toxic materials may require protective actions in the affected areas, and one option is to shelter indoors. Mechanically ventilated buildings provide protection against outdoor hazardous particulate materials with varying efficiency depending mainly on the properties of the HVAC system of the building, air leakage, and the nature of the outdoor release. A tool for modelling the indoor concentrations due to outdoor contaminants has been developed and presented. The tool solves numerically the simplified mass balance equation describing the size-resolved behaviour of airborne particles and uses as input experimentally obtained data on particle concentrations outdoors, in the supply air, and indoors. By eliminating the effect of indoor sources the size-resolved indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio for fine particles can be determined accurately, thus giving detailed information on the buildings protective capability and thereby quantitative knowledge to support emergency managers decision making.

AB - Sudden large scale outdoor releases of toxic materials may require protective actions in the affected areas, and one option is to shelter indoors. Mechanically ventilated buildings provide protection against outdoor hazardous particulate materials with varying efficiency depending mainly on the properties of the HVAC system of the building, air leakage, and the nature of the outdoor release. A tool for modelling the indoor concentrations due to outdoor contaminants has been developed and presented. The tool solves numerically the simplified mass balance equation describing the size-resolved behaviour of airborne particles and uses as input experimentally obtained data on particle concentrations outdoors, in the supply air, and indoors. By eliminating the effect of indoor sources the size-resolved indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio for fine particles can be determined accurately, thus giving detailed information on the buildings protective capability and thereby quantitative knowledge to support emergency managers decision making.

KW - sheltering efficiency

KW - I/O ratio

KW - infiltration

KW - modelling

KW - validation

U2 - 10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.06.034

DO - 10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.06.034

M3 - Article

VL - 106

SP - 245

EP - 253

JO - Building and Environment

JF - Building and Environment

SN - 0360-1323

ER -