A user-oriented, evidence-based design project of the first Finnish single room ICU: Results of EVICURES project

Esa Nykänen, Pekka Tuomaala, Jari Laarni, Krupakar Dhinakaran, Kari Saarinen, Tiina Yli-Karhu, Kati Hämäläinen, Tiina Koskela, Hannu Eerikäinen, Mari Salminen-Tuomaala, Tapio Hellman, Kari Rintamäki, Kai Vimpari, Jyrki Kilpikari, Jyrki Jääskeläinen, Heli Kotilainen

    Research output: Book/ReportReport


    The EVICURES project developed a new user-friendly design model for intensive and intermediate care facilities. In this model staff, management, patients and their families, and corporate, hospital district and other co-operation partners jointly participated in the design work from day one. EVICURES is the first project to study evidence-based design (EBD) activities in Finland. It draws on research information on EBD, users' views, and an extensive multidisciplinary network. In addition, the design of operations seeked to improve the quality and effectiveness of intensive care and increase patient and staff satisfaction. The project conducted a pre-occupancy evaluation in spring 2014. Questionnaire offered 106 statements on nine different topics, including entrances and courtyards, architecture, indoor conditions, durability, functionality, safety, comfort, accessibility and usability. Actual project started with an integrative literature review of EBD research in intensive and intermediate care environments. The following phase was computersupported co-operation work (CSCW) i.e. the collaborative design work in a cavelike virtual environment (CAVE) followed by study of presence experience. Also a Unity3D game was developed from the 3D model. The indoor environmental satisfaction and wellbeing questionnaire as well as the physical studies of stress was carried out in the existing ICU. A series of workshops supported the change in work processes by means of the Foresight Framework and Pathfinders methods. Physical studies of individual thermal sensation (Human thermal Model) was carried out to ensure correct parameters for indoor air temperature design. In last phase a Sensors-as-a-service questionnaire was done to find out the employeees preferences to sensor technology and need to automated services to support nursing and patient safety. Ultimately, the project results were acting as functional requirements in the real design process of the new ICU.
    Original languageEnglish
    PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
    Number of pages132
    ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-8405-5
    ISBN (Print)978-951-38-8401-7
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

    Publication series

    SeriesVTT Technology


    • evidence-based design
    • EBD
    • user-oriented
    • single room ICU
    • participatory design
    • virtual reality
    • unity game
    • spatial presence
    • multitasking
    • work stress
    • indoor environmental satisfaction
    • work engagement
    • human thermal model


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