Addressing technical challenges in 100% variable inverter-based renewable energy power systems

Bri Mathias S. Hodge (Corresponding Author), Himanshu Jain, Carlo Brancucci, Gab Su Seo, Magnus Korpås, Juha Kiviluoma, Hannele Holttinen, James Charles Smith, Antje Orths, Ana Estanqueiro, Lennart Söder, Damian Flynn, Til Kristian Vrana, Rick Wallace Kenyon, Benjamin Kroposki

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

62 Citations (Scopus)


Rapidly increasing levels of variable inverter-based renewable energy sources (are quickly changing electric power systems and prompting questions about how the systems will be operated when renewable generation becomes the dominant technologies. In this article, we review the status of this shifting paradigm in power systems throughout the world. We then review the implications of this shift, focusing on the rising challenges, and we provide an overview and technology-readiness classifications of some proposed mitigation strategies. Finally, we highlight outstanding questions that will require solutions to reach these ultrahigh shares of variable inverter-based renewable energy sources. This article is categorized under: Wind Power > Systems and Infrastructure Energy Systems Economics > Systems and Infrastructure Energy Infrastructure > Systems and Infrastructure.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere376
JournalWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • low-inertia grids
  • power systems
  • renewable energy
  • renewables integration


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