Advanced numerical modelling of a fire: Final report

Liisa Heikkilä (Editor), Olavi Keski-Rahkonen (Editor)

Research output: Book/ReportReport


Experience and probabilistic risk assessments show that fires present a major hazard in a nuclear power plant (NPP). Fires can be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The PALOME project (1988 - 92) improved the quality of numerical simulation of fires to make it a useful tool for fire safety analysis. Some of the most advanced zone model fire simulation codes were acquired. The performance of the codes was studied through literature and personal interviews in earlier studies and BRI2 code from the Japanese Building Research Institute was selected for further use. In PALOME 2 project this work was continued. Information obtained from large-scale fire tests at the German HDR facility allowed reliable prediction of the rate of heat release and was used for code validation. BRI2 code was validated particularly by participation in the CEC standard problem "Prediction of effects caused by a cable fire experiment within the HDR-facility". Participation in the development of a new field model code SOFIE specificially for fire applications as British-Swedish-Finnish cooperation was one of the goals of the project. SOFIE code was implemented at VTT and the first results of validation simulations were obtained. Well instrumented fire tests on electronic cabinets were carried out to determine source terms for simulation of room fires and to estimate fire spread to adjacent cabinets. The particular aim of this study was to measure the rate of heat release from a fire in an electronic cabinet. From the three tests, differing mainly in the amount of the fire load, data was obtained for source terms in numerical modelling of fires in rooms containing electronic cabinets. On the basis of these tests also a simple natural ventilation model was derived.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages26
ISBN (Print)951-38-4895-7
Publication statusPublished - 1996
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes


  • models
  • simulation
  • fires
  • fire tests
  • numerical analysis
  • mathematical models
  • nuclear power plants
  • safety engineering
  • fire safety


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