Aerosol characterization and lung deposition of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles for murine inhalation studies

Antti J. Koivisto (Corresponding Author), Maija Mäkinen, Elina M. Rossi, Hanna K. Lindberg, Mirella Miettinen, Ghita C.-M. Falck, Hannu Norppa, Harri Alenius, Anne Korpi, Joakim Riikonen, Esa Vanhala, Minnamari Vippola, Pertti Pasanen, Vesa-Pekka Lehto, Kai Savolainen, Jorma Jokiniemi, Kaarle Hämeri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


This study presents a novel exposure protocol for synthesized nanoparticles (NPs). NPs were synthesized in gas phase by thermal decomposition of metal alkoxide vapors in a laminar flow reactor. The exposure protocol was used to estimate the deposition fraction of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs to mice lung. The experiments were conducted at aerosol mass concentrations of 0.8, 7.2, 10.0, and 28.5 mg m−3. The means of aerosol geometric mobility diameter and aerodynamic diameter were 80 and 124 nm, and the geometric standard deviations were 1.8 and 1.7, respectively. The effective density of the particles was approximately from 1.5 to 1.7 g cm−3. Particle concentration varied from 4 × 105 cm−3 at mass concentrations of 0.8 mg m−3 to 12 × 106 cm−3 at 28.5 mg m−3. Particle phase structures were 74% of anatase and 26% of brookite with respective crystallite sized of 41 and 6 nm. The brookite crystallites were approximately 100 times the size of the anatase crystallites. The TiO2 particles were porous and highly agglomerated, with a mean primary particle size of 21 nm. The specific surface area of TiO2 powder was 61 m2 g−1. We defined mice respiratory minute volume (RMV) value during exposure to TiO2 aerosol. Both TiO2 particulate matter and gaseous by-products affected respiratory parameters. The RMV values were used to quantify the deposition fraction of TiO2 matter by using two different methods. According to individual samples, the deposition fraction was 8% on an average, and when defined from aerosol mass concentration series, it was 7%. These results show that the exposure protocol can be used to study toxicological effects of synthesized NPs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2949-2961
JournalJournal of Nanoparticle Research
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Inhalation exposure
  • nanoparticle
  • TiO2
  • aerosol
  • lung deposition
  • health effects
  • EHS


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