Aerosol synthesis of fullerene nanocrystals in controlled flow reactor conditions

Jorma Joutsensaari, Petri Ahonen, Esko Kauppinen (Corresponding Author), David Brown, Kari Lehtinen, Jorma Jokiniemi, Bart Pauwels, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fullerene nanocrystals in the size range 30–300 nm were produced starting from atomized droplets of C60 in toluene. The experiments were carried out under well-controlled conditions in a laminar flow reactor at temperatures of 20–600°C. Particle transformation and crystallization mechanisms of polydisperse and monodisperse (size classified) fullerene aerosol particles were studied. The results show that fullerene particles are roughly spherical having pores and voids at temperatures of 300°C and below. Particles are already crystalline and likely fine-grained at 20°C and they are polycrystalline at temperatures up to 300°C. At 400°C monodisperse particles evaporate almost completely due to their low mass concentration. Polydisperse particles are crystalline, but sometimes heavily faulted. At 500°C most of the particles are clearly faceted. In certain conditions, almost all particles are hexagonal platelets having planar defects parallel to large (111) faces. We suggest that at 500°C fullerene particles are partially vaporized forming residuals with lamellar defects such as twins and stacking faults, which promote crystal growth during synthesis. Subsequently fullerene vapor is condensed on faces with defects and hexagonal particles are grown by a re-entrant corner growth mechanism. At 600°C particles are single crystals, but they have a less distinct shape due to higher vaporization of fullerene. The final size and shape of the particles are mainly determined at the reactor outlet in the short time when the aerosol cools.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53 - 74
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Nanoparticle Research
Volume2
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2000
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Fullerenes
Nanocrystals
Aerosol
Aerosols
Reactor
fullerenes
aerosols
nanocrystals
reactors
Synthesis
synthesis
Crystallization
Defects
Crystalline materials
Stacking faults
Toluene
Platelets
Vaporization
Laminar flow
Crystal growth

Keywords

  • aerosol processing
  • aerosol methods
  • aerosols
  • c60
  • computational fluid dynamics
  • fullerenes
  • lamellar twinned particles
  • nanostructured materials
  • nanocrystalline materials
  • nanomaterials

Cite this

Joutsensaari, J., Ahonen, P., Kauppinen, E., Brown, D., Lehtinen, K., Jokiniemi, J., ... Van Tendeloo, G. (2000). Aerosol synthesis of fullerene nanocrystals in controlled flow reactor conditions. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2(1), 53 - 74. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010089628868
Joutsensaari, Jorma ; Ahonen, Petri ; Kauppinen, Esko ; Brown, David ; Lehtinen, Kari ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Pauwels, Bart ; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf. / Aerosol synthesis of fullerene nanocrystals in controlled flow reactor conditions. In: Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2000 ; Vol. 2, No. 1. pp. 53 - 74.
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abstract = "Fullerene nanocrystals in the size range 30–300 nm were produced starting from atomized droplets of C60 in toluene. The experiments were carried out under well-controlled conditions in a laminar flow reactor at temperatures of 20–600°C. Particle transformation and crystallization mechanisms of polydisperse and monodisperse (size classified) fullerene aerosol particles were studied. The results show that fullerene particles are roughly spherical having pores and voids at temperatures of 300°C and below. Particles are already crystalline and likely fine-grained at 20°C and they are polycrystalline at temperatures up to 300°C. At 400°C monodisperse particles evaporate almost completely due to their low mass concentration. Polydisperse particles are crystalline, but sometimes heavily faulted. At 500°C most of the particles are clearly faceted. In certain conditions, almost all particles are hexagonal platelets having planar defects parallel to large (111) faces. We suggest that at 500°C fullerene particles are partially vaporized forming residuals with lamellar defects such as twins and stacking faults, which promote crystal growth during synthesis. Subsequently fullerene vapor is condensed on faces with defects and hexagonal particles are grown by a re-entrant corner growth mechanism. At 600°C particles are single crystals, but they have a less distinct shape due to higher vaporization of fullerene. The final size and shape of the particles are mainly determined at the reactor outlet in the short time when the aerosol cools.",
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author = "Jorma Joutsensaari and Petri Ahonen and Esko Kauppinen and David Brown and Kari Lehtinen and Jorma Jokiniemi and Bart Pauwels and {Van Tendeloo}, Gustaaf",
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Joutsensaari, J, Ahonen, P, Kauppinen, E, Brown, D, Lehtinen, K, Jokiniemi, J, Pauwels, B & Van Tendeloo, G 2000, 'Aerosol synthesis of fullerene nanocrystals in controlled flow reactor conditions', Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 53 - 74. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010089628868

Aerosol synthesis of fullerene nanocrystals in controlled flow reactor conditions. / Joutsensaari, Jorma; Ahonen, Petri; Kauppinen, Esko (Corresponding Author); Brown, David; Lehtinen, Kari; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Pauwels, Bart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf.

In: Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2000, p. 53 - 74.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Aerosol synthesis of fullerene nanocrystals in controlled flow reactor conditions

AU - Joutsensaari, Jorma

AU - Ahonen, Petri

AU - Kauppinen, Esko

AU - Brown, David

AU - Lehtinen, Kari

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

AU - Pauwels, Bart

AU - Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

N1 - Project code: K7SU00028

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - Fullerene nanocrystals in the size range 30–300 nm were produced starting from atomized droplets of C60 in toluene. The experiments were carried out under well-controlled conditions in a laminar flow reactor at temperatures of 20–600°C. Particle transformation and crystallization mechanisms of polydisperse and monodisperse (size classified) fullerene aerosol particles were studied. The results show that fullerene particles are roughly spherical having pores and voids at temperatures of 300°C and below. Particles are already crystalline and likely fine-grained at 20°C and they are polycrystalline at temperatures up to 300°C. At 400°C monodisperse particles evaporate almost completely due to their low mass concentration. Polydisperse particles are crystalline, but sometimes heavily faulted. At 500°C most of the particles are clearly faceted. In certain conditions, almost all particles are hexagonal platelets having planar defects parallel to large (111) faces. We suggest that at 500°C fullerene particles are partially vaporized forming residuals with lamellar defects such as twins and stacking faults, which promote crystal growth during synthesis. Subsequently fullerene vapor is condensed on faces with defects and hexagonal particles are grown by a re-entrant corner growth mechanism. At 600°C particles are single crystals, but they have a less distinct shape due to higher vaporization of fullerene. The final size and shape of the particles are mainly determined at the reactor outlet in the short time when the aerosol cools.

AB - Fullerene nanocrystals in the size range 30–300 nm were produced starting from atomized droplets of C60 in toluene. The experiments were carried out under well-controlled conditions in a laminar flow reactor at temperatures of 20–600°C. Particle transformation and crystallization mechanisms of polydisperse and monodisperse (size classified) fullerene aerosol particles were studied. The results show that fullerene particles are roughly spherical having pores and voids at temperatures of 300°C and below. Particles are already crystalline and likely fine-grained at 20°C and they are polycrystalline at temperatures up to 300°C. At 400°C monodisperse particles evaporate almost completely due to their low mass concentration. Polydisperse particles are crystalline, but sometimes heavily faulted. At 500°C most of the particles are clearly faceted. In certain conditions, almost all particles are hexagonal platelets having planar defects parallel to large (111) faces. We suggest that at 500°C fullerene particles are partially vaporized forming residuals with lamellar defects such as twins and stacking faults, which promote crystal growth during synthesis. Subsequently fullerene vapor is condensed on faces with defects and hexagonal particles are grown by a re-entrant corner growth mechanism. At 600°C particles are single crystals, but they have a less distinct shape due to higher vaporization of fullerene. The final size and shape of the particles are mainly determined at the reactor outlet in the short time when the aerosol cools.

KW - aerosol processing

KW - aerosol methods

KW - aerosols

KW - c60

KW - computational fluid dynamics

KW - fullerenes

KW - lamellar twinned particles

KW - nanostructured materials

KW - nanocrystalline materials

KW - nanomaterials

U2 - 10.1023/A:1010089628868

DO - 10.1023/A:1010089628868

M3 - Article

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JO - Journal of Nanoparticle Research

JF - Journal of Nanoparticle Research

SN - 1388-0764

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Joutsensaari J, Ahonen P, Kauppinen E, Brown D, Lehtinen K, Jokiniemi J et al. Aerosol synthesis of fullerene nanocrystals in controlled flow reactor conditions. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2000;2(1):53 - 74. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010089628868