Aging and degradation of lithium-ion batteries

N. Omar, Y. Firouz, H. Gualous, J. Salminen, T. Kallio, J.M. Timmermans, Th. Coosemans, P. Van den Bossche, J. Van Mierlo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Performance, lifetime, and cost of hybrid electric vehicles and similar applications requiring peak power are directly affected by battery lifetime, performance, cost, and reliability. Different types of rechargeable energy storage systems exist in the market but none can fulfill all the demands but, rather, are designed for specific applications and uses. The performance of lithium-ion batteries is strongly affected by environmental conditions (e.g., operating temperature) and affecting cycling behavior and side reactions resulting in capacity losses. The aging degradation and reduction of the battery lifetime is subject to nonlinear phenomena influenced by temperature and another operational conditions. This chapter focuses on the degradation mechanisms inside lithium iron phosphate batteries (7 Ah cells) at different storage temperatures (60, 40, 25, 10, 0, and − 10 °C) and state of charge (SoC) levels (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%). From the experimental results, one can observe that the capacity degradation is considerably higher at higher storage temperatures (e.g., 60 and 40 °C) compared to lower temperatures. The higher-capacity degradation is related to the parasitic reactions that occur at higher temperatures, whereby loss of active material and lithium-ion become determining factors. This observation has been confirmed by the increase of the internal resistance, whereby the main contributor is the growth of the solid electrolyte interface. Furthermore, the experimental results show that higher SoC levels have a negative impact on the battery capacity degradation compared to lower SoC levels (e.g., 25%). From the performed analysis, one can conclude that a lithium-ion battery should be kept in a temperature range lower than 40 °C and 75% SoC during its calendar life for guaranteeing long lifetime of the battery.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRechargeable Lithium Batteries
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Fundamentals to Applications
EditorsAlejandro A. Franco
PublisherElsevier
Chapter9
Pages263-279
Volume2
ISBN (Print)978-1-78242-090-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material

Publication series

NameWoodhead Publishing Series in Energy
PublisherElsevier
Number81

Fingerprint

Aging of materials
Degradation
Temperature
Lithium
Solid electrolytes
Hybrid vehicles
Lithium-ion batteries
Energy storage
Costs
Phosphates
Iron
Ions

Keywords

  • lithium iron phosphate battery
  • calendar life
  • testing
  • aging
  • performance
  • resistance

Cite this

Omar, N., Firouz, Y., Gualous, H., Salminen, J., Kallio, T., Timmermans, J. M., ... Van Mierlo, J. (2015). Aging and degradation of lithium-ion batteries. In A. A. Franco (Ed.), Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: From Fundamentals to Applications (Vol. 2, pp. 263-279). Elsevier. Woodhead publishing series in energy, No. 81 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-090-3.00009-2
Omar, N. ; Firouz, Y. ; Gualous, H. ; Salminen, J. ; Kallio, T. ; Timmermans, J.M. ; Coosemans, Th. ; Van den Bossche, P. ; Van Mierlo, J. / Aging and degradation of lithium-ion batteries. Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: From Fundamentals to Applications. editor / Alejandro A. Franco. Vol. 2 Elsevier, 2015. pp. 263-279 (Woodhead publishing series in energy; No. 81).
@inbook{19d656889c0645bdae19cf801358118c,
title = "Aging and degradation of lithium-ion batteries",
abstract = "Performance, lifetime, and cost of hybrid electric vehicles and similar applications requiring peak power are directly affected by battery lifetime, performance, cost, and reliability. Different types of rechargeable energy storage systems exist in the market but none can fulfill all the demands but, rather, are designed for specific applications and uses. The performance of lithium-ion batteries is strongly affected by environmental conditions (e.g., operating temperature) and affecting cycling behavior and side reactions resulting in capacity losses. The aging degradation and reduction of the battery lifetime is subject to nonlinear phenomena influenced by temperature and another operational conditions. This chapter focuses on the degradation mechanisms inside lithium iron phosphate batteries (7 Ah cells) at different storage temperatures (60, 40, 25, 10, 0, and − 10 °C) and state of charge (SoC) levels (100{\%}, 75{\%}, 50{\%}, and 25{\%}). From the experimental results, one can observe that the capacity degradation is considerably higher at higher storage temperatures (e.g., 60 and 40 °C) compared to lower temperatures. The higher-capacity degradation is related to the parasitic reactions that occur at higher temperatures, whereby loss of active material and lithium-ion become determining factors. This observation has been confirmed by the increase of the internal resistance, whereby the main contributor is the growth of the solid electrolyte interface. Furthermore, the experimental results show that higher SoC levels have a negative impact on the battery capacity degradation compared to lower SoC levels (e.g., 25{\%}). From the performed analysis, one can conclude that a lithium-ion battery should be kept in a temperature range lower than 40 °C and 75{\%} SoC during its calendar life for guaranteeing long lifetime of the battery.",
keywords = "lithium iron phosphate battery, calendar life, testing, aging, performance, resistance",
author = "N. Omar and Y. Firouz and H. Gualous and J. Salminen and T. Kallio and J.M. Timmermans and Th. Coosemans and {Van den Bossche}, P. and {Van Mierlo}, J.",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1016/B978-1-78242-090-3.00009-2",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-1-78242-090-3",
volume = "2",
series = "Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "81",
pages = "263--279",
editor = "Franco, {Alejandro A.}",
booktitle = "Rechargeable Lithium Batteries",
address = "Netherlands",

}

Omar, N, Firouz, Y, Gualous, H, Salminen, J, Kallio, T, Timmermans, JM, Coosemans, T, Van den Bossche, P & Van Mierlo, J 2015, Aging and degradation of lithium-ion batteries. in AA Franco (ed.), Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: From Fundamentals to Applications. vol. 2, Elsevier, Woodhead publishing series in energy, no. 81, pp. 263-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-090-3.00009-2

Aging and degradation of lithium-ion batteries. / Omar, N.; Firouz, Y.; Gualous, H.; Salminen, J.; Kallio, T.; Timmermans, J.M.; Coosemans, Th.; Van den Bossche, P.; Van Mierlo, J.

Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: From Fundamentals to Applications. ed. / Alejandro A. Franco. Vol. 2 Elsevier, 2015. p. 263-279 (Woodhead publishing series in energy; No. 81).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

TY - CHAP

T1 - Aging and degradation of lithium-ion batteries

AU - Omar, N.

AU - Firouz, Y.

AU - Gualous, H.

AU - Salminen, J.

AU - Kallio, T.

AU - Timmermans, J.M.

AU - Coosemans, Th.

AU - Van den Bossche, P.

AU - Van Mierlo, J.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Performance, lifetime, and cost of hybrid electric vehicles and similar applications requiring peak power are directly affected by battery lifetime, performance, cost, and reliability. Different types of rechargeable energy storage systems exist in the market but none can fulfill all the demands but, rather, are designed for specific applications and uses. The performance of lithium-ion batteries is strongly affected by environmental conditions (e.g., operating temperature) and affecting cycling behavior and side reactions resulting in capacity losses. The aging degradation and reduction of the battery lifetime is subject to nonlinear phenomena influenced by temperature and another operational conditions. This chapter focuses on the degradation mechanisms inside lithium iron phosphate batteries (7 Ah cells) at different storage temperatures (60, 40, 25, 10, 0, and − 10 °C) and state of charge (SoC) levels (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%). From the experimental results, one can observe that the capacity degradation is considerably higher at higher storage temperatures (e.g., 60 and 40 °C) compared to lower temperatures. The higher-capacity degradation is related to the parasitic reactions that occur at higher temperatures, whereby loss of active material and lithium-ion become determining factors. This observation has been confirmed by the increase of the internal resistance, whereby the main contributor is the growth of the solid electrolyte interface. Furthermore, the experimental results show that higher SoC levels have a negative impact on the battery capacity degradation compared to lower SoC levels (e.g., 25%). From the performed analysis, one can conclude that a lithium-ion battery should be kept in a temperature range lower than 40 °C and 75% SoC during its calendar life for guaranteeing long lifetime of the battery.

AB - Performance, lifetime, and cost of hybrid electric vehicles and similar applications requiring peak power are directly affected by battery lifetime, performance, cost, and reliability. Different types of rechargeable energy storage systems exist in the market but none can fulfill all the demands but, rather, are designed for specific applications and uses. The performance of lithium-ion batteries is strongly affected by environmental conditions (e.g., operating temperature) and affecting cycling behavior and side reactions resulting in capacity losses. The aging degradation and reduction of the battery lifetime is subject to nonlinear phenomena influenced by temperature and another operational conditions. This chapter focuses on the degradation mechanisms inside lithium iron phosphate batteries (7 Ah cells) at different storage temperatures (60, 40, 25, 10, 0, and − 10 °C) and state of charge (SoC) levels (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%). From the experimental results, one can observe that the capacity degradation is considerably higher at higher storage temperatures (e.g., 60 and 40 °C) compared to lower temperatures. The higher-capacity degradation is related to the parasitic reactions that occur at higher temperatures, whereby loss of active material and lithium-ion become determining factors. This observation has been confirmed by the increase of the internal resistance, whereby the main contributor is the growth of the solid electrolyte interface. Furthermore, the experimental results show that higher SoC levels have a negative impact on the battery capacity degradation compared to lower SoC levels (e.g., 25%). From the performed analysis, one can conclude that a lithium-ion battery should be kept in a temperature range lower than 40 °C and 75% SoC during its calendar life for guaranteeing long lifetime of the battery.

KW - lithium iron phosphate battery

KW - calendar life

KW - testing

KW - aging

KW - performance

KW - resistance

U2 - 10.1016/B978-1-78242-090-3.00009-2

DO - 10.1016/B978-1-78242-090-3.00009-2

M3 - Chapter or book article

SN - 978-1-78242-090-3

VL - 2

T3 - Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

SP - 263

EP - 279

BT - Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

A2 - Franco, Alejandro A.

PB - Elsevier

ER -

Omar N, Firouz Y, Gualous H, Salminen J, Kallio T, Timmermans JM et al. Aging and degradation of lithium-ion batteries. In Franco AA, editor, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: From Fundamentals to Applications. Vol. 2. Elsevier. 2015. p. 263-279. (Woodhead publishing series in energy; No. 81). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-090-3.00009-2