Alkali emissions characterization in chemical looping combustion of wood, wood char, and straw fuels

Ivan Gogolev (Corresponding Author), Toni Pikkarainen, Juho Kauppinen, Markus Hurskainen, Anders Lyngfelt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Chemical looping combustion of wood pellets (WP), wood char (WC), and straw pellets (SP) was conducted in a 60 kW CLC pilot with ilmenite and braunite oxygen carriers (OCs). Alkali emissions were investigated with impactor-based and surface ionization detector (SID) measurements. Particle size distributions for WP and WC fuels were dominated by coarse particles formed by refractory species. For SP fuel, the distribution was bimodal with a distinct fine particle mode formed by nucleation of volatile ash species. Thermodynamic modelling of stable alkali species at 800 °C predicted that high KOH(g) and lower concentrations of KCl(g) are stable for WP and WC fuels. For SP fuel, equilibrium K species were dominated by condensed-phase K species, followed by KCl(g), and KOH(g). Modelling of fuel-OC interactions showed that ilmenite decreases equilibrium levels of KOH(g) and KCl(g). Braunite impacted only KOH(g) levels. Impactor sample leachate analysis showed that for WP-braunite operation, the leachate contained KCl, NaCl, KOH, and NaOH, in decreasing order. For WC-ilmenite operation, the samples contained KOH and KCl. For SP fuel, most detected alkalis were KCl. For most cases, speciation of impactor samples qualitatively agreed with modelling predictions. Impactor and SID alkali measurements showed reasonable agreement for WC-braunite and SP-braunite tests.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107447
JournalFuel Processing Technology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Alkali emissions
  • Ash chemistry
  • Biomass conversion
  • Chemical looping combustion
  • CO capture


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