All-Silicon Spectrally Resolved Interferometric Circuit for Multiplexed Diagnostics: A Monolithic Lab-on-a-Chip Integrating All Active and Passive Components

Konstantinos Misiakos, Eleni Makarona, Marcel Hoekman, Romanos Fyrogenis, Kari Tukkiniemi, Gerhard Jobst, Panagiota Sotirios Petrou, Sotirios Elias Kakabakos, Alexandros Salapatas, Dimitrios Goustouridis, Mikko Harjanne, Paivi Heimala, Ioannis Raptis (Corresponding Author)

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Despite the tremendous advances in micro- and nanoelectronics and the fast-pacing advances in photonic circuit designs, seamless monolithic integration of electronic and photonic components on single chips still remains elusive. In this work, a radically designed silicon-based chip that monolithically integrates in a 37 mm2 footprint 10 interferometric optical sensors along with their respective optical sources, spectral analyzers, and photodetector arrays is presented. The chip is fabricated with mainstream CMOS-compatible fabrication techniques and employs optical devices operating in the visible/infrared spectrum and waveguides with a critical dimension of 1.0 μm. In addition, it exploits the newly introduced detection principle of broad-band Mach-Zehnder interferometry that surpasses the stringent requirement for external monochromatic sources and inherent limitations of traditional interferometry and introduces alternative designs of on-chip spectral analyzers and mode-filtering components, aspiring thus to become a novel lab-on-a-chip that can address the needs of next-generation analytical systems. Apart from the conceptual design, novel photonic features, fabrication steps, and out-of-the-box system development that circumvents the need for fluidic interfacing and employs only electrical interconnects, the present work tests the potential of the fully spectroscopic chip for analytical applications through real-time monitoring of immunochemical reactions and demonstrates limits of detection for antimouse IgG antibody and CRP of 60 and 8 pM, respectively.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1694-1705
    Number of pages12
    JournalACS Photonics
    Volume6
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 13 Jun 2019
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Optics and Photonics
    Lab-on-a-chip
    Silicon
    Interferometry
    Photonics
    chips
    Networks (circuits)
    silicon
    Fabrication
    Optical Devices
    Nanoelectronics
    Optical sensors
    Fluidics
    photonics
    Optical devices
    Photodetectors
    Conceptual design
    Antibodies
    Microelectronics
    Mach number

    Keywords

    • Broad-band interferometry
    • Lab-on-chip
    • Optical biosensing
    • Photonic circuit
    • Photonics-microelectronic integration

    Cite this

    Misiakos, Konstantinos ; Makarona, Eleni ; Hoekman, Marcel ; Fyrogenis, Romanos ; Tukkiniemi, Kari ; Jobst, Gerhard ; Petrou, Panagiota Sotirios ; Kakabakos, Sotirios Elias ; Salapatas, Alexandros ; Goustouridis, Dimitrios ; Harjanne, Mikko ; Heimala, Paivi ; Raptis, Ioannis. / All-Silicon Spectrally Resolved Interferometric Circuit for Multiplexed Diagnostics : A Monolithic Lab-on-a-Chip Integrating All Active and Passive Components. In: ACS Photonics. 2019 ; Vol. 6, No. 7. pp. 1694-1705.
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    abstract = "Despite the tremendous advances in micro- and nanoelectronics and the fast-pacing advances in photonic circuit designs, seamless monolithic integration of electronic and photonic components on single chips still remains elusive. In this work, a radically designed silicon-based chip that monolithically integrates in a 37 mm2 footprint 10 interferometric optical sensors along with their respective optical sources, spectral analyzers, and photodetector arrays is presented. The chip is fabricated with mainstream CMOS-compatible fabrication techniques and employs optical devices operating in the visible/infrared spectrum and waveguides with a critical dimension of 1.0 μm. In addition, it exploits the newly introduced detection principle of broad-band Mach-Zehnder interferometry that surpasses the stringent requirement for external monochromatic sources and inherent limitations of traditional interferometry and introduces alternative designs of on-chip spectral analyzers and mode-filtering components, aspiring thus to become a novel lab-on-a-chip that can address the needs of next-generation analytical systems. Apart from the conceptual design, novel photonic features, fabrication steps, and out-of-the-box system development that circumvents the need for fluidic interfacing and employs only electrical interconnects, the present work tests the potential of the fully spectroscopic chip for analytical applications through real-time monitoring of immunochemical reactions and demonstrates limits of detection for antimouse IgG antibody and CRP of 60 and 8 pM, respectively.",
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    author = "Konstantinos Misiakos and Eleni Makarona and Marcel Hoekman and Romanos Fyrogenis and Kari Tukkiniemi and Gerhard Jobst and Petrou, {Panagiota Sotirios} and Kakabakos, {Sotirios Elias} and Alexandros Salapatas and Dimitrios Goustouridis and Mikko Harjanne and Paivi Heimala and Ioannis Raptis",
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    Misiakos, K, Makarona, E, Hoekman, M, Fyrogenis, R, Tukkiniemi, K, Jobst, G, Petrou, PS, Kakabakos, SE, Salapatas, A, Goustouridis, D, Harjanne, M, Heimala, P & Raptis, I 2019, 'All-Silicon Spectrally Resolved Interferometric Circuit for Multiplexed Diagnostics: A Monolithic Lab-on-a-Chip Integrating All Active and Passive Components', ACS Photonics, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1694-1705. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsphotonics.9b00235

    All-Silicon Spectrally Resolved Interferometric Circuit for Multiplexed Diagnostics : A Monolithic Lab-on-a-Chip Integrating All Active and Passive Components. / Misiakos, Konstantinos; Makarona, Eleni; Hoekman, Marcel; Fyrogenis, Romanos; Tukkiniemi, Kari; Jobst, Gerhard; Petrou, Panagiota Sotirios; Kakabakos, Sotirios Elias; Salapatas, Alexandros; Goustouridis, Dimitrios; Harjanne, Mikko; Heimala, Paivi; Raptis, Ioannis (Corresponding Author).

    In: ACS Photonics, Vol. 6, No. 7, 13.06.2019, p. 1694-1705.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    AU - Hoekman, Marcel

    AU - Fyrogenis, Romanos

    AU - Tukkiniemi, Kari

    AU - Jobst, Gerhard

    AU - Petrou, Panagiota Sotirios

    AU - Kakabakos, Sotirios Elias

    AU - Salapatas, Alexandros

    AU - Goustouridis, Dimitrios

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