All-Wood Composite Material by Partial Fiber Surface Dissolution with an Ionic Liquid

Alexey Khakalo, Atsushi Tanaka, Antti Korpela, Lauri K.J. Hauru, Hannes Orelma (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Synthetic structural materials of high mechanical performance are typically either of large weight (for example, steels, and alloys) or involve complex manufacturing processes and thus have high cost or cause adverse environmental impact (for example, polymer-based and biomimetic composites). In this perspective, low-cost, abundant and nature-based materials, such as wood, represent particular interest provided they fulfill the requirements for advanced engineering structures and applications, especially when manufactured totally additive-free. Here, we report on a novel all-wood material concept based on delignification, partial surface dissolution using ionic liquid (IL) followed by densification resulting in a high-performance material. A delignification process using sodium chlorite in acetate buffer solution was applied to controllably delignify the entire bulk wooden material while retaining the highly beneficial structural directionality of wood. In a subsequent step, obtained delignified porous wood template was infiltrated with an IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [EMIM]OAc and heat activated at 95 °C to partially dissolve the fiber surface. Afterward, treated wood was washed with water to remove IL and hot-pressed to gain a very compact cellulosic material with fused fibers while retaining unidirectional fiber orientation. The obtained cellulose materials were structurally, chemically, and mechanically characterized revealing superior tensile properties compared to native wood. Furthermore, suggested approach allows almost 8-fold tensile strength improvement in the direction perpendicular to fiber orientation, which is otherwise very challenging to achieve.

LanguageEnglish
Pages3195-3202
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 8 Jan 2019
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Fingerprint

Ionic Liquids
Ionic liquids
Wood
Dissolution
dissolution
Fibers
Composite materials
Delignification
Fiber reinforced materials
acetate
Steel
Biomimetics
Tensile properties
Densification
Cellulose
Environmental impact
ionic liquid
material
fibre
Costs

Keywords

  • All-cellulose composite
  • Delignification
  • Dissolution
  • Ionic liquid
  • Wood modification

Cite this

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title = "All-Wood Composite Material by Partial Fiber Surface Dissolution with an Ionic Liquid",
abstract = "Synthetic structural materials of high mechanical performance are typically either of large weight (for example, steels, and alloys) or involve complex manufacturing processes and thus have high cost or cause adverse environmental impact (for example, polymer-based and biomimetic composites). In this perspective, low-cost, abundant and nature-based materials, such as wood, represent particular interest provided they fulfill the requirements for advanced engineering structures and applications, especially when manufactured totally additive-free. Here, we report on a novel all-wood material concept based on delignification, partial surface dissolution using ionic liquid (IL) followed by densification resulting in a high-performance material. A delignification process using sodium chlorite in acetate buffer solution was applied to controllably delignify the entire bulk wooden material while retaining the highly beneficial structural directionality of wood. In a subsequent step, obtained delignified porous wood template was infiltrated with an IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [EMIM]OAc and heat activated at 95 °C to partially dissolve the fiber surface. Afterward, treated wood was washed with water to remove IL and hot-pressed to gain a very compact cellulosic material with fused fibers while retaining unidirectional fiber orientation. The obtained cellulose materials were structurally, chemically, and mechanically characterized revealing superior tensile properties compared to native wood. Furthermore, suggested approach allows almost 8-fold tensile strength improvement in the direction perpendicular to fiber orientation, which is otherwise very challenging to achieve.",
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All-Wood Composite Material by Partial Fiber Surface Dissolution with an Ionic Liquid. / Khakalo, Alexey; Tanaka, Atsushi; Korpela, Antti; Hauru, Lauri K.J.; Orelma, Hannes (Corresponding Author).

In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 3, 08.01.2019, p. 3195-3202.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - All-Wood Composite Material by Partial Fiber Surface Dissolution with an Ionic Liquid

AU - Khakalo, Alexey

AU - Tanaka, Atsushi

AU - Korpela, Antti

AU - Hauru, Lauri K.J.

AU - Orelma, Hannes

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