Aluminum oxide/titanium dioxide nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition: Growth and mechanical properties

Oili M. E. Ylivaara (Corresponding Author), Lauri Kilpi, Xuwen Liu, Sakari Sintonen, Saima Ali, Mikko Laitinen, Jaakko Julin, Eero Haimi, Timo Sajavaara, Harri Lipsanen, Simo-Pekka Hannula, Helena Ronkainen, Riikka L. Puurunen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    10 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is based on self-limiting surface reactions. This and cyclic process enable the growth of conformal thin films with precise thickness control and sharp interfaces. A multilayered thin film, which is nanolaminate, can be grown using ALD with tuneable electrical and optical properties to be exploited, for example, in the microelectromechanical systems. In this work, the tunability of the residual stress, adhesion, and mechanical properties of the ALD nanolaminates composed of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) films on silicon were explored as a function of growth temperature (110-300 C), film thickness (20-300 nm), bilayer thickness (0.1-100 nm), and TiO2 content (0%-100%). Al2O3 was grown from Me3Al and H2O, and TiO2 from TiCl4 and H2O. According to wafer curvature measurements, Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates were under tensile stress; bilayer thickness and growth temperature were the major parameters affecting the stress; the residual stress decreased with increasing bilayer thickness and ALD temperature. Hardness increased with increasing ALD temperature and decreased with increasing TiO2 fraction. Contact modulus remained approximately stable. The adhesion of the nanolaminate film was good on silicon.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number01B105
    Number of pages14
    JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
    Volume35
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2017
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Atomic layer deposition
    Aluminum Oxide
    atomic layer epitaxy
    titanium oxides
    Titanium dioxide
    aluminum oxides
    mechanical properties
    Aluminum
    Mechanical properties
    Oxides
    Growth temperature
    Silicon
    residual stress
    Residual stresses
    adhesion
    Adhesion
    Thickness control
    Thin films
    temperature
    Surface reactions

    Keywords

    • ALD
    • Atomic Layer Deposition
    • nanolaminate
    • residual stress
    • contact modulus
    • hardness
    • adhesion

    Cite this

    Ylivaara, Oili M. E. ; Kilpi, Lauri ; Liu, Xuwen ; Sintonen, Sakari ; Ali, Saima ; Laitinen, Mikko ; Julin, Jaakko ; Haimi, Eero ; Sajavaara, Timo ; Lipsanen, Harri ; Hannula, Simo-Pekka ; Ronkainen, Helena ; Puurunen, Riikka L. / Aluminum oxide/titanium dioxide nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition : Growth and mechanical properties. In: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films. 2017 ; Vol. 35, No. 1.
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    title = "Aluminum oxide/titanium dioxide nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition: Growth and mechanical properties",
    abstract = "Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is based on self-limiting surface reactions. This and cyclic process enable the growth of conformal thin films with precise thickness control and sharp interfaces. A multilayered thin film, which is nanolaminate, can be grown using ALD with tuneable electrical and optical properties to be exploited, for example, in the microelectromechanical systems. In this work, the tunability of the residual stress, adhesion, and mechanical properties of the ALD nanolaminates composed of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) films on silicon were explored as a function of growth temperature (110-300 C), film thickness (20-300 nm), bilayer thickness (0.1-100 nm), and TiO2 content (0{\%}-100{\%}). Al2O3 was grown from Me3Al and H2O, and TiO2 from TiCl4 and H2O. According to wafer curvature measurements, Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates were under tensile stress; bilayer thickness and growth temperature were the major parameters affecting the stress; the residual stress decreased with increasing bilayer thickness and ALD temperature. Hardness increased with increasing ALD temperature and decreased with increasing TiO2 fraction. Contact modulus remained approximately stable. The adhesion of the nanolaminate film was good on silicon.",
    keywords = "ALD, Atomic Layer Deposition, nanolaminate, residual stress, contact modulus, hardness, adhesion",
    author = "Ylivaara, {Oili M. E.} and Lauri Kilpi and Xuwen Liu and Sakari Sintonen and Saima Ali and Mikko Laitinen and Jaakko Julin and Eero Haimi and Timo Sajavaara and Harri Lipsanen and Simo-Pekka Hannula and Helena Ronkainen and Puurunen, {Riikka L.}",
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    Aluminum oxide/titanium dioxide nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition : Growth and mechanical properties. / Ylivaara, Oili M. E. (Corresponding Author); Kilpi, Lauri; Liu, Xuwen; Sintonen, Sakari; Ali, Saima; Laitinen, Mikko; Julin, Jaakko; Haimi, Eero; Sajavaara, Timo; Lipsanen, Harri; Hannula, Simo-Pekka; Ronkainen, Helena; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    In: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, Vol. 35, No. 1, 01B105, 2017.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    T1 - Aluminum oxide/titanium dioxide nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition

    T2 - Growth and mechanical properties

    AU - Ylivaara, Oili M. E.

    AU - Kilpi, Lauri

    AU - Liu, Xuwen

    AU - Sintonen, Sakari

    AU - Ali, Saima

    AU - Laitinen, Mikko

    AU - Julin, Jaakko

    AU - Haimi, Eero

    AU - Sajavaara, Timo

    AU - Lipsanen, Harri

    AU - Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    AU - Ronkainen, Helena

    AU - Puurunen, Riikka L.

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    PY - 2017

    Y1 - 2017

    N2 - Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is based on self-limiting surface reactions. This and cyclic process enable the growth of conformal thin films with precise thickness control and sharp interfaces. A multilayered thin film, which is nanolaminate, can be grown using ALD with tuneable electrical and optical properties to be exploited, for example, in the microelectromechanical systems. In this work, the tunability of the residual stress, adhesion, and mechanical properties of the ALD nanolaminates composed of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) films on silicon were explored as a function of growth temperature (110-300 C), film thickness (20-300 nm), bilayer thickness (0.1-100 nm), and TiO2 content (0%-100%). Al2O3 was grown from Me3Al and H2O, and TiO2 from TiCl4 and H2O. According to wafer curvature measurements, Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates were under tensile stress; bilayer thickness and growth temperature were the major parameters affecting the stress; the residual stress decreased with increasing bilayer thickness and ALD temperature. Hardness increased with increasing ALD temperature and decreased with increasing TiO2 fraction. Contact modulus remained approximately stable. The adhesion of the nanolaminate film was good on silicon.

    AB - Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is based on self-limiting surface reactions. This and cyclic process enable the growth of conformal thin films with precise thickness control and sharp interfaces. A multilayered thin film, which is nanolaminate, can be grown using ALD with tuneable electrical and optical properties to be exploited, for example, in the microelectromechanical systems. In this work, the tunability of the residual stress, adhesion, and mechanical properties of the ALD nanolaminates composed of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) films on silicon were explored as a function of growth temperature (110-300 C), film thickness (20-300 nm), bilayer thickness (0.1-100 nm), and TiO2 content (0%-100%). Al2O3 was grown from Me3Al and H2O, and TiO2 from TiCl4 and H2O. According to wafer curvature measurements, Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates were under tensile stress; bilayer thickness and growth temperature were the major parameters affecting the stress; the residual stress decreased with increasing bilayer thickness and ALD temperature. Hardness increased with increasing ALD temperature and decreased with increasing TiO2 fraction. Contact modulus remained approximately stable. The adhesion of the nanolaminate film was good on silicon.

    KW - ALD

    KW - Atomic Layer Deposition

    KW - nanolaminate

    KW - residual stress

    KW - contact modulus

    KW - hardness

    KW - adhesion

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    M3 - Article

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