Aluminum oxide/titanium dioxide nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition

Growth and mechanical properties

Oili M. E. Ylivaara (Corresponding Author), Lauri Kilpi, Xuwen Liu, Sakari Sintonen, Saima Ali, Mikko Laitinen, Jaakko Julin, Eero Haimi, Timo Sajavaara, Harri Lipsanen, Simo-Pekka Hannula, Helena Ronkainen, Riikka L. Puurunen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is based on self-limiting surface reactions. This and cyclic process enable the growth of conformal thin films with precise thickness control and sharp interfaces. A multilayered thin film, which is nanolaminate, can be grown using ALD with tuneable electrical and optical properties to be exploited, for example, in the microelectromechanical systems. In this work, the tunability of the residual stress, adhesion, and mechanical properties of the ALD nanolaminates composed of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) films on silicon were explored as a function of growth temperature (110-300 C), film thickness (20-300 nm), bilayer thickness (0.1-100 nm), and TiO2 content (0%-100%). Al2O3 was grown from Me3Al and H2O, and TiO2 from TiCl4 and H2O. According to wafer curvature measurements, Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates were under tensile stress; bilayer thickness and growth temperature were the major parameters affecting the stress; the residual stress decreased with increasing bilayer thickness and ALD temperature. Hardness increased with increasing ALD temperature and decreased with increasing TiO2 fraction. Contact modulus remained approximately stable. The adhesion of the nanolaminate film was good on silicon.
Original languageEnglish
Article number01B105
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Volume35
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Atomic layer deposition
Aluminum Oxide
atomic layer epitaxy
titanium oxides
Titanium dioxide
aluminum oxides
mechanical properties
Aluminum
Mechanical properties
Oxides
Growth temperature
Silicon
residual stress
Residual stresses
adhesion
Adhesion
Thickness control
Thin films
temperature
Surface reactions

Keywords

  • ALD
  • Atomic Layer Deposition
  • nanolaminate
  • residual stress
  • contact modulus
  • hardness
  • adhesion

Cite this

Ylivaara, Oili M. E. ; Kilpi, Lauri ; Liu, Xuwen ; Sintonen, Sakari ; Ali, Saima ; Laitinen, Mikko ; Julin, Jaakko ; Haimi, Eero ; Sajavaara, Timo ; Lipsanen, Harri ; Hannula, Simo-Pekka ; Ronkainen, Helena ; Puurunen, Riikka L. / Aluminum oxide/titanium dioxide nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition : Growth and mechanical properties. In: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films. 2017 ; Vol. 35, No. 1.
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title = "Aluminum oxide/titanium dioxide nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition: Growth and mechanical properties",
abstract = "Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is based on self-limiting surface reactions. This and cyclic process enable the growth of conformal thin films with precise thickness control and sharp interfaces. A multilayered thin film, which is nanolaminate, can be grown using ALD with tuneable electrical and optical properties to be exploited, for example, in the microelectromechanical systems. In this work, the tunability of the residual stress, adhesion, and mechanical properties of the ALD nanolaminates composed of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) films on silicon were explored as a function of growth temperature (110-300 C), film thickness (20-300 nm), bilayer thickness (0.1-100 nm), and TiO2 content (0{\%}-100{\%}). Al2O3 was grown from Me3Al and H2O, and TiO2 from TiCl4 and H2O. According to wafer curvature measurements, Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates were under tensile stress; bilayer thickness and growth temperature were the major parameters affecting the stress; the residual stress decreased with increasing bilayer thickness and ALD temperature. Hardness increased with increasing ALD temperature and decreased with increasing TiO2 fraction. Contact modulus remained approximately stable. The adhesion of the nanolaminate film was good on silicon.",
keywords = "ALD, Atomic Layer Deposition, nanolaminate, residual stress, contact modulus, hardness, adhesion",
author = "Ylivaara, {Oili M. E.} and Lauri Kilpi and Xuwen Liu and Sakari Sintonen and Saima Ali and Mikko Laitinen and Jaakko Julin and Eero Haimi and Timo Sajavaara and Harri Lipsanen and Simo-Pekka Hannula and Helena Ronkainen and Puurunen, {Riikka L.}",
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language = "English",
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Aluminum oxide/titanium dioxide nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition : Growth and mechanical properties. / Ylivaara, Oili M. E. (Corresponding Author); Kilpi, Lauri; Liu, Xuwen; Sintonen, Sakari; Ali, Saima; Laitinen, Mikko; Julin, Jaakko; Haimi, Eero; Sajavaara, Timo; Lipsanen, Harri; Hannula, Simo-Pekka; Ronkainen, Helena; Puurunen, Riikka L.

In: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, Vol. 35, No. 1, 01B105, 2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Aluminum oxide/titanium dioxide nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition

T2 - Growth and mechanical properties

AU - Ylivaara, Oili M. E.

AU - Kilpi, Lauri

AU - Liu, Xuwen

AU - Sintonen, Sakari

AU - Ali, Saima

AU - Laitinen, Mikko

AU - Julin, Jaakko

AU - Haimi, Eero

AU - Sajavaara, Timo

AU - Lipsanen, Harri

AU - Hannula, Simo-Pekka

AU - Ronkainen, Helena

AU - Puurunen, Riikka L.

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PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is based on self-limiting surface reactions. This and cyclic process enable the growth of conformal thin films with precise thickness control and sharp interfaces. A multilayered thin film, which is nanolaminate, can be grown using ALD with tuneable electrical and optical properties to be exploited, for example, in the microelectromechanical systems. In this work, the tunability of the residual stress, adhesion, and mechanical properties of the ALD nanolaminates composed of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) films on silicon were explored as a function of growth temperature (110-300 C), film thickness (20-300 nm), bilayer thickness (0.1-100 nm), and TiO2 content (0%-100%). Al2O3 was grown from Me3Al and H2O, and TiO2 from TiCl4 and H2O. According to wafer curvature measurements, Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates were under tensile stress; bilayer thickness and growth temperature were the major parameters affecting the stress; the residual stress decreased with increasing bilayer thickness and ALD temperature. Hardness increased with increasing ALD temperature and decreased with increasing TiO2 fraction. Contact modulus remained approximately stable. The adhesion of the nanolaminate film was good on silicon.

AB - Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is based on self-limiting surface reactions. This and cyclic process enable the growth of conformal thin films with precise thickness control and sharp interfaces. A multilayered thin film, which is nanolaminate, can be grown using ALD with tuneable electrical and optical properties to be exploited, for example, in the microelectromechanical systems. In this work, the tunability of the residual stress, adhesion, and mechanical properties of the ALD nanolaminates composed of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) films on silicon were explored as a function of growth temperature (110-300 C), film thickness (20-300 nm), bilayer thickness (0.1-100 nm), and TiO2 content (0%-100%). Al2O3 was grown from Me3Al and H2O, and TiO2 from TiCl4 and H2O. According to wafer curvature measurements, Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates were under tensile stress; bilayer thickness and growth temperature were the major parameters affecting the stress; the residual stress decreased with increasing bilayer thickness and ALD temperature. Hardness increased with increasing ALD temperature and decreased with increasing TiO2 fraction. Contact modulus remained approximately stable. The adhesion of the nanolaminate film was good on silicon.

KW - ALD

KW - Atomic Layer Deposition

KW - nanolaminate

KW - residual stress

KW - contact modulus

KW - hardness

KW - adhesion

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U2 - 10.1116/1.4966198

DO - 10.1116/1.4966198

M3 - Article

VL - 35

JO - Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films

JF - Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films

SN - 0734-2101

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