Over the past decades, the automotive industry has managed to successfully meet the demands set by the continuous and worldwide progress in exhaust emission legislation. This has, to a great extent, been possible by employing catalytic exhaust after-treatment. The growing use of advanced emission control has now brought an increasing number of vehicles using such technology to the areas of cold climate like the Nordic countries. However, low ambient temperature and cold operating conditions have been found to increase emissions and to diminish the performance of a catalyst system. This has been the case, because the design guidelines are mainly set by the legislation, in which low ambient temperature conditions have not been considered in test procedures so far. This paper discusses the emissions performance of current technology vehicles under low ambient temperature conditions. Both the US FTP75 as well as the ECE test procedure, now comprising the ECE15 and the EUDC driving schedules, have been used to assess the response of vehicles and their emission control systems. Altogether, 10 current-technology vehicles have been tested at subzero temperatures. The results show clearly the negative effect of low ambient temperature. Furthermore, they illustrate how dependent the emission output is on the test procedure and driving schedule applied.
|Journal||Science of the Total Environment|
|Publication status||Published - 1995|
|MoE publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|
|Event||3rd International Congress on Transport and Air Pollution - Avignon, France|
Duration: 6 Jun 1994 → 10 Jun 1994