Amino acid-derived betaines dominate as urinary markers for rye bran intake in mice fed high-fat diet-A nontargeted metabolomics study

Jenna Pekkinen (Corresponding Author), Natalia Rosa-Sibakov, Valerie Micard, Pekka Keski-Rahkonen, Marko Lehtonen, Kaisa Poutanen, Hannu Mykkänen, Kati Hanhineva

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20 Citations (Scopus)


Scope: Bioprocessing of whole grain cereals may affect the bioavailability of phytochemicals associated with grain fiber and ultimately lead to different health outcomes. Here, we studied the impact of long-term feeding with intact and bioprocessed rye bran on the urinary phytochemical profile of mice. Methods and results: Nontargeted hydrophilic interaction chromatography-ESI-qTOF-MS metabolite profiling approach was applied on urine samples collected from three groups of diet-induced obese mice fed for 8 weeks with one of the three diets: high-fat (HF) control diet, HF diet enriched with intact rye bran, or HF diet enriched with bioprocessed rye bran. The most striking finding was the increased urinary excretion of several amino-acid derived betaines after both rye diets. These included proline betaine, alanine betaine, valine betaine, phenylalanine betaine, pipecolic acid betaine, and trigonelline, but not glycine betaine. Furthermore, bioprocessing may have improved the bioavailability of rye-derived phytochemicals, as higher increase in, e.g. ferulic acid and benzoxazinoid metabolites were observed in urine of mice fed with bioprocessed than intact rye bran. Conclusion: Urinary excretion of various betaines was greatly increased in mice fed rye brans. Furthermore, bioprocessing of rye bran appears to serve as a beneficial way to improve the bioavailability of various phytochemicals.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1550-1562
JournalMolecular Nutrition and Food Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



  • betaines
  • dietary fiber
  • metabolite profiling
  • rye

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