Amorphization of silicon by high dose germanium ion implantation with no external cooling mechanism

Z. Xia, J. Saarilahti, E. Ristolainen, S. Eränen, H. Ronkainen, P. Kuivalainen, D. Paine, T. Tuomi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    Abstract

    Si(100) wafers were implanted by using three different methods: single-energy Ge+ ion implantation, double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ ion implantation, and double-energy Si+ and Ge+ ion implantation. The single-energy implantations were performed at energies from 50 to 180 keV, over the range of 8.38 × 1015 to 5.80 × 1016 ions/cm2. By keeping the ion beam power density below 0.09 W/cm2, full surface amorphization could be achieved in the single-energy Ge+ implanted samples. Also beam heating was suppressed during implantation, although the implanter had no external cooling. In addition, a two-step single-energy implant technique using sequentially high and low power densities was further developed in order to reduce implantation times. In order to locate the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interfaces far away from the concentration peak positions of the implanted Ge+ ions, the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+, and Si+ and Ge+ implantations were carried out. Three Ge+ implanted wafers were either pre-implanted with 180 keV Si+ ions, or post-implanted with 360 keV Ge2+ ions, respectively, in order to locate deeper a/c interfaces. Channelling effect measurements indicate that the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ implantation is a preferable technique for wilfully tailoring the amorphous depth and the Ge peak position.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)321-330
    Number of pages10
    JournalApplied Surface Science
    Volume78
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1994
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Germanium
    Amorphization
    Silicon
    Ion implantation
    Ions
    Cooling
    Crystalline materials
    Ion beams
    Heating

    Cite this

    Xia, Z. ; Saarilahti, J. ; Ristolainen, E. ; Eränen, S. ; Ronkainen, H. ; Kuivalainen, P. ; Paine, D. ; Tuomi, T. / Amorphization of silicon by high dose germanium ion implantation with no external cooling mechanism. In: Applied Surface Science. 1994 ; Vol. 78, No. 3. pp. 321-330.
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    abstract = "Si(100) wafers were implanted by using three different methods: single-energy Ge+ ion implantation, double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ ion implantation, and double-energy Si+ and Ge+ ion implantation. The single-energy implantations were performed at energies from 50 to 180 keV, over the range of 8.38 × 1015 to 5.80 × 1016 ions/cm2. By keeping the ion beam power density below 0.09 W/cm2, full surface amorphization could be achieved in the single-energy Ge+ implanted samples. Also beam heating was suppressed during implantation, although the implanter had no external cooling. In addition, a two-step single-energy implant technique using sequentially high and low power densities was further developed in order to reduce implantation times. In order to locate the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interfaces far away from the concentration peak positions of the implanted Ge+ ions, the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+, and Si+ and Ge+ implantations were carried out. Three Ge+ implanted wafers were either pre-implanted with 180 keV Si+ ions, or post-implanted with 360 keV Ge2+ ions, respectively, in order to locate deeper a/c interfaces. Channelling effect measurements indicate that the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ implantation is a preferable technique for wilfully tailoring the amorphous depth and the Ge peak position.",
    author = "Z. Xia and J. Saarilahti and E. Ristolainen and S. Er{\"a}nen and H. Ronkainen and P. Kuivalainen and D. Paine and T. Tuomi",
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    Amorphization of silicon by high dose germanium ion implantation with no external cooling mechanism. / Xia, Z.; Saarilahti, J.; Ristolainen, E.; Eränen, S.; Ronkainen, H.; Kuivalainen, P.; Paine, D.; Tuomi, T.

    In: Applied Surface Science, Vol. 78, No. 3, 01.01.1994, p. 321-330.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    T1 - Amorphization of silicon by high dose germanium ion implantation with no external cooling mechanism

    AU - Xia, Z.

    AU - Saarilahti, J.

    AU - Ristolainen, E.

    AU - Eränen, S.

    AU - Ronkainen, H.

    AU - Kuivalainen, P.

    AU - Paine, D.

    AU - Tuomi, T.

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    PY - 1994/1/1

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    N2 - Si(100) wafers were implanted by using three different methods: single-energy Ge+ ion implantation, double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ ion implantation, and double-energy Si+ and Ge+ ion implantation. The single-energy implantations were performed at energies from 50 to 180 keV, over the range of 8.38 × 1015 to 5.80 × 1016 ions/cm2. By keeping the ion beam power density below 0.09 W/cm2, full surface amorphization could be achieved in the single-energy Ge+ implanted samples. Also beam heating was suppressed during implantation, although the implanter had no external cooling. In addition, a two-step single-energy implant technique using sequentially high and low power densities was further developed in order to reduce implantation times. In order to locate the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interfaces far away from the concentration peak positions of the implanted Ge+ ions, the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+, and Si+ and Ge+ implantations were carried out. Three Ge+ implanted wafers were either pre-implanted with 180 keV Si+ ions, or post-implanted with 360 keV Ge2+ ions, respectively, in order to locate deeper a/c interfaces. Channelling effect measurements indicate that the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ implantation is a preferable technique for wilfully tailoring the amorphous depth and the Ge peak position.

    AB - Si(100) wafers were implanted by using three different methods: single-energy Ge+ ion implantation, double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ ion implantation, and double-energy Si+ and Ge+ ion implantation. The single-energy implantations were performed at energies from 50 to 180 keV, over the range of 8.38 × 1015 to 5.80 × 1016 ions/cm2. By keeping the ion beam power density below 0.09 W/cm2, full surface amorphization could be achieved in the single-energy Ge+ implanted samples. Also beam heating was suppressed during implantation, although the implanter had no external cooling. In addition, a two-step single-energy implant technique using sequentially high and low power densities was further developed in order to reduce implantation times. In order to locate the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interfaces far away from the concentration peak positions of the implanted Ge+ ions, the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+, and Si+ and Ge+ implantations were carried out. Three Ge+ implanted wafers were either pre-implanted with 180 keV Si+ ions, or post-implanted with 360 keV Ge2+ ions, respectively, in order to locate deeper a/c interfaces. Channelling effect measurements indicate that the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ implantation is a preferable technique for wilfully tailoring the amorphous depth and the Ge peak position.

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