Amorphization of silicon by high dose germanium ion implantation with no external cooling mechanism

Z. Xia, J. Saarilahti, E. Ristolainen, S. Eränen, H. Ronkainen, P. Kuivalainen, D. Paine, T. Tuomi

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Si(100) wafers were implanted by using three different methods: single-energy Ge+ ion implantation, double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ ion implantation, and double-energy Si+ and Ge+ ion implantation. The single-energy implantations were performed at energies from 50 to 180 keV, over the range of 8.38 × 1015 to 5.80 × 1016 ions/cm2. By keeping the ion beam power density below 0.09 W/cm2, full surface amorphization could be achieved in the single-energy Ge+ implanted samples. Also beam heating was suppressed during implantation, although the implanter had no external cooling. In addition, a two-step single-energy implant technique using sequentially high and low power densities was further developed in order to reduce implantation times. In order to locate the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interfaces far away from the concentration peak positions of the implanted Ge+ ions, the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+, and Si+ and Ge+ implantations were carried out. Three Ge+ implanted wafers were either pre-implanted with 180 keV Si+ ions, or post-implanted with 360 keV Ge2+ ions, respectively, in order to locate deeper a/c interfaces. Channelling effect measurements indicate that the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ implantation is a preferable technique for wilfully tailoring the amorphous depth and the Ge peak position.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-330
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Surface Science
Volume78
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1994
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Germanium
Amorphization
Silicon
Ion implantation
Ions
Cooling
Crystalline materials
Ion beams
Heating

Cite this

Xia, Z. ; Saarilahti, J. ; Ristolainen, E. ; Eränen, S. ; Ronkainen, H. ; Kuivalainen, P. ; Paine, D. ; Tuomi, T. / Amorphization of silicon by high dose germanium ion implantation with no external cooling mechanism. In: Applied Surface Science. 1994 ; Vol. 78, No. 3. pp. 321-330.
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abstract = "Si(100) wafers were implanted by using three different methods: single-energy Ge+ ion implantation, double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ ion implantation, and double-energy Si+ and Ge+ ion implantation. The single-energy implantations were performed at energies from 50 to 180 keV, over the range of 8.38 × 1015 to 5.80 × 1016 ions/cm2. By keeping the ion beam power density below 0.09 W/cm2, full surface amorphization could be achieved in the single-energy Ge+ implanted samples. Also beam heating was suppressed during implantation, although the implanter had no external cooling. In addition, a two-step single-energy implant technique using sequentially high and low power densities was further developed in order to reduce implantation times. In order to locate the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interfaces far away from the concentration peak positions of the implanted Ge+ ions, the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+, and Si+ and Ge+ implantations were carried out. Three Ge+ implanted wafers were either pre-implanted with 180 keV Si+ ions, or post-implanted with 360 keV Ge2+ ions, respectively, in order to locate deeper a/c interfaces. Channelling effect measurements indicate that the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ implantation is a preferable technique for wilfully tailoring the amorphous depth and the Ge peak position.",
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Amorphization of silicon by high dose germanium ion implantation with no external cooling mechanism. / Xia, Z.; Saarilahti, J.; Ristolainen, E.; Eränen, S.; Ronkainen, H.; Kuivalainen, P.; Paine, D.; Tuomi, T.

In: Applied Surface Science, Vol. 78, No. 3, 01.01.1994, p. 321-330.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Xia, Z.

AU - Saarilahti, J.

AU - Ristolainen, E.

AU - Eränen, S.

AU - Ronkainen, H.

AU - Kuivalainen, P.

AU - Paine, D.

AU - Tuomi, T.

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N2 - Si(100) wafers were implanted by using three different methods: single-energy Ge+ ion implantation, double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ ion implantation, and double-energy Si+ and Ge+ ion implantation. The single-energy implantations were performed at energies from 50 to 180 keV, over the range of 8.38 × 1015 to 5.80 × 1016 ions/cm2. By keeping the ion beam power density below 0.09 W/cm2, full surface amorphization could be achieved in the single-energy Ge+ implanted samples. Also beam heating was suppressed during implantation, although the implanter had no external cooling. In addition, a two-step single-energy implant technique using sequentially high and low power densities was further developed in order to reduce implantation times. In order to locate the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interfaces far away from the concentration peak positions of the implanted Ge+ ions, the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+, and Si+ and Ge+ implantations were carried out. Three Ge+ implanted wafers were either pre-implanted with 180 keV Si+ ions, or post-implanted with 360 keV Ge2+ ions, respectively, in order to locate deeper a/c interfaces. Channelling effect measurements indicate that the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ implantation is a preferable technique for wilfully tailoring the amorphous depth and the Ge peak position.

AB - Si(100) wafers were implanted by using three different methods: single-energy Ge+ ion implantation, double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ ion implantation, and double-energy Si+ and Ge+ ion implantation. The single-energy implantations were performed at energies from 50 to 180 keV, over the range of 8.38 × 1015 to 5.80 × 1016 ions/cm2. By keeping the ion beam power density below 0.09 W/cm2, full surface amorphization could be achieved in the single-energy Ge+ implanted samples. Also beam heating was suppressed during implantation, although the implanter had no external cooling. In addition, a two-step single-energy implant technique using sequentially high and low power densities was further developed in order to reduce implantation times. In order to locate the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interfaces far away from the concentration peak positions of the implanted Ge+ ions, the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+, and Si+ and Ge+ implantations were carried out. Three Ge+ implanted wafers were either pre-implanted with 180 keV Si+ ions, or post-implanted with 360 keV Ge2+ ions, respectively, in order to locate deeper a/c interfaces. Channelling effect measurements indicate that the double-energy Ge+ and Ge2+ implantation is a preferable technique for wilfully tailoring the amorphous depth and the Ge peak position.

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