Amount, characteristics and safety of nano-scale cellulose fibrils

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference articleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyse the amount and properties of the finest fraction of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), as well as to study its toxicity to humans as part of its safety assessment. A finely ground CNF was fractionated into four separate size fractions using a MicroFracon device, which utilises a tube flow fractionation principle. The two finest fractions, comprising around 20% of the original material, were collected and combined for further studies. Estimates for the dimensions of fibrils in the fraction were obtained with an in-line image analysis of the MicroFracon device, and transmittance measuremens were used for indirect information of the particle size. The morphological studies performed with state-of-the art methods, such as scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showed that the fraction was quite monodisperse, contrary to the original, heterogeous CNF sample, and consisted of thin, long fibrils. The cytotoxicity of the fraction was assessed by performing the short-term cytotoxicity studies in vitro, including estimates of the highest tolerated dose (HTD) and total protein content (TPC). Sublethality on human cells was studied with the RNA inhibition test, while Ames test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of the fraction and test with nematode for studying its potential systemic effects. Some indication of cytotoxicity was observed in the TPC test with the highest sample concentration. However, the significance of this result should be addressed in relation to the other toxicity tests, in which no toxicity was observed. And most importantly, no indication of toxicity was found in the in vivo test.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Event2013 Tappi International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials - Stockholm, Sweden
Duration: 24 Jun 201327 Jun 2013

Conference

Conference2013 Tappi International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials
CountrySweden
CityStockholm
Period24/06/1327/06/13

Fingerprint

nanofibers
cellulose
cytotoxicity
toxicity testing
testing
protein content
toxicity
Ames test
atomic force microscopy
safety assessment
transmittance
genotoxicity
in vitro studies
particle size
fractionation
electrons
Nematoda
image analysis
RNA
sampling

Keywords

  • cellulose nanofibrils
  • fractional analysis
  • morphology
  • fibril width distribution
  • cytotoxicity
  • genotoxicity

Cite this

Kangas, H., Pitkänen, M., & Laitinen, O. (2013). Amount, characteristics and safety of nano-scale cellulose fibrils. Paper presented at 2013 Tappi International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials, Stockholm, Sweden.
Kangas, Heli ; Pitkänen, Marja ; Laitinen, O. / Amount, characteristics and safety of nano-scale cellulose fibrils. Paper presented at 2013 Tappi International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials, Stockholm, Sweden.
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keywords = "cellulose nanofibrils, fractional analysis, morphology, fibril width distribution, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity",
author = "Heli Kangas and Marja Pitk{\"a}nen and O. Laitinen",
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Kangas, H, Pitkänen, M & Laitinen, O 2013, 'Amount, characteristics and safety of nano-scale cellulose fibrils' Paper presented at 2013 Tappi International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials, Stockholm, Sweden, 24/06/13 - 27/06/13, .

Amount, characteristics and safety of nano-scale cellulose fibrils. / Kangas, Heli; Pitkänen, Marja; Laitinen, O.

2013. Paper presented at 2013 Tappi International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials, Stockholm, Sweden.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference articleScientificpeer-review

TY - CONF

T1 - Amount, characteristics and safety of nano-scale cellulose fibrils

AU - Kangas, Heli

AU - Pitkänen, Marja

AU - Laitinen, O.

N1 - Only powerpoint published Project code: 73363

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - The aim of the study was to analyse the amount and properties of the finest fraction of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), as well as to study its toxicity to humans as part of its safety assessment. A finely ground CNF was fractionated into four separate size fractions using a MicroFracon device, which utilises a tube flow fractionation principle. The two finest fractions, comprising around 20% of the original material, were collected and combined for further studies. Estimates for the dimensions of fibrils in the fraction were obtained with an in-line image analysis of the MicroFracon device, and transmittance measuremens were used for indirect information of the particle size. The morphological studies performed with state-of-the art methods, such as scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showed that the fraction was quite monodisperse, contrary to the original, heterogeous CNF sample, and consisted of thin, long fibrils. The cytotoxicity of the fraction was assessed by performing the short-term cytotoxicity studies in vitro, including estimates of the highest tolerated dose (HTD) and total protein content (TPC). Sublethality on human cells was studied with the RNA inhibition test, while Ames test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of the fraction and test with nematode for studying its potential systemic effects. Some indication of cytotoxicity was observed in the TPC test with the highest sample concentration. However, the significance of this result should be addressed in relation to the other toxicity tests, in which no toxicity was observed. And most importantly, no indication of toxicity was found in the in vivo test.

AB - The aim of the study was to analyse the amount and properties of the finest fraction of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), as well as to study its toxicity to humans as part of its safety assessment. A finely ground CNF was fractionated into four separate size fractions using a MicroFracon device, which utilises a tube flow fractionation principle. The two finest fractions, comprising around 20% of the original material, were collected and combined for further studies. Estimates for the dimensions of fibrils in the fraction were obtained with an in-line image analysis of the MicroFracon device, and transmittance measuremens were used for indirect information of the particle size. The morphological studies performed with state-of-the art methods, such as scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showed that the fraction was quite monodisperse, contrary to the original, heterogeous CNF sample, and consisted of thin, long fibrils. The cytotoxicity of the fraction was assessed by performing the short-term cytotoxicity studies in vitro, including estimates of the highest tolerated dose (HTD) and total protein content (TPC). Sublethality on human cells was studied with the RNA inhibition test, while Ames test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of the fraction and test with nematode for studying its potential systemic effects. Some indication of cytotoxicity was observed in the TPC test with the highest sample concentration. However, the significance of this result should be addressed in relation to the other toxicity tests, in which no toxicity was observed. And most importantly, no indication of toxicity was found in the in vivo test.

KW - cellulose nanofibrils

KW - fractional analysis

KW - morphology

KW - fibril width distribution

KW - cytotoxicity

KW - genotoxicity

M3 - Conference article

ER -

Kangas H, Pitkänen M, Laitinen O. Amount, characteristics and safety of nano-scale cellulose fibrils. 2013. Paper presented at 2013 Tappi International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials, Stockholm, Sweden.