An ARMAX-model approach for estimating static heat flows in buildings

A method for computerised energy allocation systems

Jouko Pakanen, Sami Karjalainen

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

Abstract

An energy cost allocation system records the energy consumption of a building and divides the overall energy costs between the flats. Because the indoor temperatures of rooms are usually not equal, static heat flows between flats cannot be avoided. Hence, in order to ensure fair energy costs per flat the system should be able to determine the static heat flows, preferably without utilising design data or in-situ measurements. This paper presents a new method for estimating static heat flows between neighbouring rooms. It also outlines the instrumentation and technical properties of the energy allocation system (EAS), needed in implementation. The approach is strictly technical, focusing only on heat transfer issues. Energy cost allocation is not considered. The approach is based on the proposed control techniques and the ARMAX-model describing dynamic behaviour of heating power. The model is created for each room/flat of a building. Parameter values are identified using real-time measurements collected from each room/flat and its environment. Only ordinary instrumentation is required. The tuning of parameters takes a few days using a fifteen-minute sampling time. A prerequisite for successful estimation is the overall control and the precise adjustment of the room temperatures at specified level. This is accomplished by the suggested set point control. All test runs are performed in a simulated office hotel using the TRNSYS simulation program. Realistic inner and outer heating loads, and their daily schedules and variations are included. The results are encouraging, but further research is needed, especially in a real building environment.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages63
ISBN (Electronic)951-38-5974-6
ISBN (Print)951-38-5973-8
Publication statusPublished - 2002
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

NameVTT Publications
PublisherVTT
No.457
ISSN (Print)1235-0621
ISSN (Electronic)1455-0849

Fingerprint

Heat transfer
Costs
Heating
Hotels
Time measurement
Energy utilization
Tuning
Sampling
Temperature

Keywords

  • buildings
  • heat flows
  • energy consumption
  • room temperatures
  • energy economy
  • costs
  • heat transfer
  • heating
  • models
  • measurement
  • thermal load
  • simulation
  • indoor air

Cite this

Pakanen, J., & Karjalainen, S. (2002). An ARMAX-model approach for estimating static heat flows in buildings: A method for computerised energy allocation systems. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Publications, No. 457
Pakanen, Jouko ; Karjalainen, Sami. / An ARMAX-model approach for estimating static heat flows in buildings : A method for computerised energy allocation systems. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2002. 63 p. (VTT Publications; No. 457).
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Pakanen, J & Karjalainen, S 2002, An ARMAX-model approach for estimating static heat flows in buildings: A method for computerised energy allocation systems. VTT Publications, no. 457, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

An ARMAX-model approach for estimating static heat flows in buildings : A method for computerised energy allocation systems. / Pakanen, Jouko; Karjalainen, Sami.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2002. 63 p. (VTT Publications; No. 457).

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

TY - BOOK

T1 - An ARMAX-model approach for estimating static heat flows in buildings

T2 - A method for computerised energy allocation systems

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N2 - An energy cost allocation system records the energy consumption of a building and divides the overall energy costs between the flats. Because the indoor temperatures of rooms are usually not equal, static heat flows between flats cannot be avoided. Hence, in order to ensure fair energy costs per flat the system should be able to determine the static heat flows, preferably without utilising design data or in-situ measurements. This paper presents a new method for estimating static heat flows between neighbouring rooms. It also outlines the instrumentation and technical properties of the energy allocation system (EAS), needed in implementation. The approach is strictly technical, focusing only on heat transfer issues. Energy cost allocation is not considered. The approach is based on the proposed control techniques and the ARMAX-model describing dynamic behaviour of heating power. The model is created for each room/flat of a building. Parameter values are identified using real-time measurements collected from each room/flat and its environment. Only ordinary instrumentation is required. The tuning of parameters takes a few days using a fifteen-minute sampling time. A prerequisite for successful estimation is the overall control and the precise adjustment of the room temperatures at specified level. This is accomplished by the suggested set point control. All test runs are performed in a simulated office hotel using the TRNSYS simulation program. Realistic inner and outer heating loads, and their daily schedules and variations are included. The results are encouraging, but further research is needed, especially in a real building environment.

AB - An energy cost allocation system records the energy consumption of a building and divides the overall energy costs between the flats. Because the indoor temperatures of rooms are usually not equal, static heat flows between flats cannot be avoided. Hence, in order to ensure fair energy costs per flat the system should be able to determine the static heat flows, preferably without utilising design data or in-situ measurements. This paper presents a new method for estimating static heat flows between neighbouring rooms. It also outlines the instrumentation and technical properties of the energy allocation system (EAS), needed in implementation. The approach is strictly technical, focusing only on heat transfer issues. Energy cost allocation is not considered. The approach is based on the proposed control techniques and the ARMAX-model describing dynamic behaviour of heating power. The model is created for each room/flat of a building. Parameter values are identified using real-time measurements collected from each room/flat and its environment. Only ordinary instrumentation is required. The tuning of parameters takes a few days using a fifteen-minute sampling time. A prerequisite for successful estimation is the overall control and the precise adjustment of the room temperatures at specified level. This is accomplished by the suggested set point control. All test runs are performed in a simulated office hotel using the TRNSYS simulation program. Realistic inner and outer heating loads, and their daily schedules and variations are included. The results are encouraging, but further research is needed, especially in a real building environment.

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KW - measurement

KW - thermal load

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Pakanen J, Karjalainen S. An ARMAX-model approach for estimating static heat flows in buildings: A method for computerised energy allocation systems. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2002. 63 p. (VTT Publications; No. 457).