An overview of current safety requirements for autonomous machines-review of standards

Risto Tiusanen (Corresponding Author), Timo Malm, Ari Ronkainen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
679 Downloads (Pure)


The development of automated work machine systems towards autonomous operation is proceeding rapidly in different industrial sectors. The aim of the study was to explore the current situation and possible differences in standardization supporting the development in different industrial sectors. The existing ISO and IEC standards and work items related to autonomous machinery were reviewed as well as activities in international industry groups regarding automation and autonomy of machinery. In general, the current standards are made mostly for machine manufacturers, but the views or responsibilities at worksite level are not considered. Three different approaches for safety concepts for different operating conditions were identified. One of them relies on onboard safety systems including sensor and perception systems for indoor applications. One guides to separate and isolate the autonomously operating machinery and to use access control to the autonomous operating zone. The third one is relying mainly on the machine operator's ability to understand the situation and to react correctly according to the available information. From technology point of view there seems to be a gap between the safety requirements set in standards and the state of the art in currently available technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)665-673
Number of pages9
JournalOpen Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jul 2020
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal
EventAutomaatiopäivät23 - Oulu, Finland
Duration: 15 May 201916 May 2019


  • autonomous work machine
  • safety concept
  • safety requirement
  • standard


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