Acrolein and acrylonitrile can be quantified directly at low levels in aqueous solution using membrane introduction mass spectrometry. Electron impact was used to generate positively charged ions and electron capture of the O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxyl amine (PFBOA) derivative was used to generate negatively charged ions of acrolein in aqueous solutions. The origins of all ions in the mass spectra and product MS/MS spectra recorded using both ionization methods were assigned and a reaction scheme is given which accounts for the fragmentation of the PFBOA derivative. Detection limits were measured using multiple reaction monitoring in both the methods. With electron capture detection, acrolein could be detected without preconcentration at 10 ppb levels. Electron impact ionization and multiple reaction monitoring both allowed the measurement of acrylonitrile at levels as low as 10 ppb.